DG COMP (Brussels)

European Commission

DG COMP (Brussels)

The European Commission, together with the national competition authorities, directly enforces EU competition rules, Articles 101-109 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), to make EU markets work better, by ensuring that all companies compete equally and fairly on their merits. Within the Commission, the Directorate-General (DG) for Competition is primarily responsible for these direct enforcement powers.

Linked authors

DG CNECT (Brussels)
European Commission (Brussels)
DG COMP (Brussels)
European Commission - DG HR (Brussels)
European Commission (Brussels)

Articles

1949677 Bulletin

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a Communication on a competition policy fit for new challenges, including for the Single Market’s COVID-19 recovery, and for the green and digital transitions

339

Competition: Commission outlines contribution of competition policy and its review to green and digital transition, and to a resilient Single Market* The European Commission has adopted a Communication on a competition policy fit for new challenges, which frames the important role of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts interim measures to prevent harm to competition following a merger between biological and pharmaceutical companies (Grail / Illumina)

300

Mergers: Commission adopts interim measures to prevent harm to competition following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL* The European Commission has adopted interim measures to restore and maintain the conditions of effective competition following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL, which (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation into the proposed acquisition of a semiconductor and software design firm by a technology company (Nvidia / Arm)

285

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Arm by NVIDIA* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Arm by NVIDIA under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the merged entity would (...)

European Commission The EU Commission carries out unannounced inspections at the premises of a pharmaceutical company active in animal health in Belgium due to suspected abuse of dominance

534

Antitrust: Commission carries out unannounced inspections in the animal health sector in Belgium* The European Commission is conducting unannounced inspections at the premises of a pharmaceutical company active in animal health in Belgium. The Commission has concerns that the inspected (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on draft amendments to the General Block Exemption Regulation to further facilitate implementation of aid measures promoting the green and digital transition

630

State aid: Commission invites comments on draft proposal to further facilitate implementation of aid measures promoting the green and digital transition* The European Commission is inviting Member States and all other interested parties to comment on certain proposed amendments to the General (...)

European Commission The EU Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by telecommunication companies concerning their network sharing agreements (T-Mobile CZ / CETIN / O2 CZ)

593

Antitrust: Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by T-Mobile CZ, CETIN, and O2 CZ concerning the Czech telecommunications market* The European Commission invites comments on commitments offered by T-Mobile CZ, CETIN, O2 CZ, and their respective parent companies, Deutsche Telekom and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission in two separate decisions clears Italian public support for a ferry service and closes the investigation on another ferry service that has since been put into liquidation (Laziomar) (Saremar)

320

State aid: Commission clears Italian public support for Laziomar ferry service; closes investigation concerning support to Saremar* The European Commission has concluded that the public service compensation granted since 2011 to Laziomar S.p.A. (‘Laziomar’) for the operation of ferry services in (...)

European Commission The EU General Court maintains the fines imposed by the Commission on several undertakings for their participation in a cartel on the market for aluminum and tantalum electrolytic capacitors (NEC / Nichicon / Tokin / Rubycon / Nippon Chemi-Con)

332

The General Court maintains the fines imposed by the Commission on several undertakings by reason of their participation in a cartel on the market for aluminium electrolytic capacitors and tantalum electrolytic capacitors * By decision of 21 March 2018 [1], the Commission imposed a total fine (...)

European Commission The EU Commission announces interim measures following a breach of the standstill obligation between two healthcare companies specialized in genomic sequencing (Grail / Illumina)

588

Mergers: The Commission adopts a Statement of Objections in view of adopting interim measures following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Illumina and GRAIL informing them of the interim measures it intends to adopt following (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves an award of slots at the Paris-Orly airport to a low-cost airline company in the context of its competitor’s recapitalisation due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Vueling / Air France)

574

State aid: Commission approves award of slots at Paris-Orly airport to Vueling in context of Air France’s recapitalisation* The European Commission has ranked Vueling first among the air carriers that have applied for the portfolio of up to 18 daily slots at Paris-Orly airport. These will be (...)

European Commission The EU Court of Justice sets aside the General Court’s judgment and rules that the Commission correctly found an aid scheme within the tax exemptions granted by Belgium to multinational companies (Magnetrol International)

273

Tax exemptions granted by Belgium to multinational companies by way of rulings: the Commission correctly found that there was an aid scheme* The Court of Justice sets aside the judgment delivered on 14 February 2019 by the General Court and refers the case back to the latter for it to rule on (...)

European Commission The EU Commission concludes after an in-depth investigation that Italian loans worth €900 million granted to a national airline are illegal aid (Alitalia)

473

State aid: Commission concludes Italian loans worth €900 million to Alitalia are illegal aid* The European Commission has concluded that two State loans for an amount of €900 million, granted by Italy to Alitalia in 2017, are illegal under EU State aid rules. Italy must therefore recover the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Greek commitments to remove the distortion created by the state-owned electricity provider’s exclusive access to lignite-fired generation (PPC)

571

Antitrust: Commission approves Greek measures to increase access to electricity for PPC’s competitors* The European Commission has made legally binding, under EU antitrust rules, measures proposed by Greece to allow the competitors of Public Power Corporation (PPC), the Greek state-owned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that a new Italian airline company is not an economic successor and therefore is not liable to repay an illegal State aid received by another national air carrier (ITA / Alitalia)

762

State aid: Commission finds new air carrier ITA is not Alitalia’s economic successor and Italy’s capital injections into ITA are market conform* The European Commission has found that Italia Trasporto Aereo S.p.A. (“ITA”) is not the economic successor of Alitalia and, hence, it is not liable to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that Denmark and Sweden need to recover €66 million of incompatible aid resulting from two capital injections granted to a postal company (PostNord / Post Danmark)

598

State aid: €314.6 million capital injection from PostNord to Post Danmark does not constitute State aid; Denmark and Sweden need to recover €66 million of incompatible aid from PostNord* The European Commission has found that an internal capital injection of DKK 2.34 billion (approximately (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €520 million Italian scheme to compensate the trade fairs and congress sector for damages suffered due to the Covid-19 pandemic

330

State aid: Commission approves €520 million Italian scheme to compensate the trade fairs and congress sector for damages suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €520 million Italian scheme to compensate companies active in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission Commission approves a €108 million Danish aid measure to support Covid-19-related research and development activities of a healthcare company (Bavarian Nordic)

269

State aid: Commission approves €108 million Danish aid measure to support coronavirus-related research and development activities of Bavarian Nordic* The European Commission has approved a €108 million Danish aid measure to support coronavirus-related research and development (R&D) (...)

European Commission The EU Commission starts an investigation for possible breach of a standstill obligation in a merger between two biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies (Grail / Illumina)

458

Mergers: Commission starts investigation for possible breach of the standstill obligation in Illumina / GRAIL transaction* The European Commission has decided to open an investigation to assess whether Illumina’s decision to complete its acquisition of GRAIL, while the Commission’s in-depth (...)

European Commission The EU Commission gives the green light to a new synthetic securitization product under the European Guarantee Fund to further support SMEs affected by the Covid-19 pandemic in 22 Member States

347

State aid: Commission gives green light to new synthetic securitisation product under the European Guarantee Fund to further support SMEs affected by the coronavirus outbreak in 22 Member States* The European Commission approved, under EU State aid rules, the introduction of a new product in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €550 million German support measure to compensate a national railway company for damages suffered by its subsidiary due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Deutsche Bahn / DB Fernverkehr)

304

State aid: Commission approves €550 million German support to compensate Deutsche Bahn for damages suffered by its subsidiary DB Fernverkehr due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a €550 million German support measure in favor of Deutsche Bahn AG (“Deutsche Bahn”) to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation following referral from Austria to assess the proposed acquisition of a company specialized in the supply of customer relationship management software by a Big Tech company (Kustomer / Facebook)

474

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Kustomer by Facebook* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Kustomer by Facebook under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and ground-handling operators for the damage suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic

239

State aid: Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and ground-handling operators for the damage suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission simplifies rules for aid combined with EU support and introduces new possibilities to implement aid measures supporting the twin transition and the recovery from Covid-19 pandemic

232

State aid: Commission simplifies rules for aid combined with EU support and introduces new possibilities to implement aid measures supporting the twin transition and the recovery from coronavirus pandemic* The European Commission adopted today an extension of the scope of the General Block (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1.2 billion rescue loan and opens an investigation into a €3.2 billion Portuguese further restructuring aid in favour of a national airline company (TAP)

133

State aid: Commission approves €1.2 billion rescue loan; opens investigation into €3.2 billion Portuguese further restructuring aid in favour of TAP* By two separate decisions adopted today, the European Commission has (i) re-approved €1.2 billion rescue aid to Transportes Aéreos Portugueses SGPS (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €39.7 million of Italian aid measures to compensate a national airline company for further damages suffered due to COVID-19 outbreak (Alitalia)

667

State aid: Commission approves €39.7 million of Italian aid measure to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found that an Italian aid measure of €39.7 million to support Alitalia is in line with EU State aid rules. This measure (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears public support for several ferry services in Italy but finds other measures to be incompatible aid (Siremar / Società Navigazione Siciliana)

277

State aid: Commission clears public support for several ferry services in Italy; finds other measures to Siremar and SNS to be incompatible aid* The European Commission has concluded that the public service compensation granted since 2009 to Sicilia Regionale Marittima S.p.A. (‘Siremar’) and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to support companies in context of the coronavirus outbreak, as well as development and production of COVID-19-relevant products

350

State aid: Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to support companies in context of coronavirus outbreak, as well as development and production of coronavirus-relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €800 million Italian scheme to support companies affected by the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves the modification of the existing German State aid scheme to support rail freight operators and mitigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the sector

215

State aid: Commission approves modification of existing German scheme to support rail freight operators and mitigate effects of coronavirus outbreak on the sector* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, the modification of an existing German aid scheme to support rail (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines several investment banks €371 million for participating in a European government bond trading cartel (Bank of America / Natixis / RBS / UBS / UniCredit / WestLB)

294

Antitrust: Commission fines investment banks € 371 million for participating in a European Governments Bonds trading cartel* The European Commission has found that Bank of America, Natixis, Nomura, RBS (now NatWest), UBS, UniCredit and WestLB (now Portigon) have breached EU antitrust rules (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a chemical company €7.5 million for providing misleading information during an investigation regarding its merger with a competitor (Sigma-Aldrich / Merck)

249

Mergers: Commission fines Sigma-Aldrich €7.5 million for providing misleading information during Merck takeover investigation* The European Commission has fined Sigma-Aldrich €7.5 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s investigation under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €12 million COVID-19 damage compensation as well as a €255.5 million of liquidity support to two airline companies in Portugal and extends an ongoing in-depth investigation to planned restructuring aid (SATA / Azores)

210

State aid: Commission approves €12 million coronavirus damage compensation and €255.5 million of liquidity support to SATA Air Açores and Azores Airlines in Portugal; extends ongoing in-depth investigation to planned restructuring aid* The European Commission has approved €12 million in Portuguese (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a restructuring aid for Polish regional railways as the country commits to an accelerated opening to competition of regional passenger rail transport

158

State aid: Commission approves restructuring aid for Polish Regional Railways, as Poland commits to an accelerated opening to competition of regional passenger rail transport* The European Commission has concluded that Polish measures to support the restructuring of Polish Regional Railways, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts revised regional aid guidelines

593

State aid: Commission adopts revised Regional Aid Guidelines* The European Commission has adopted revised EU guidelines on regional State aid (the “Regional Aid Guidelines”), setting out the rules under which Member States can grant State aid to companies to support the economic development of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and linked travel arrangements in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

454

State aid: Commission approves €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and linked travel arrangements in context of coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €24.7 million Italian aid to compensate a national airline company for further damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Alitalia)

331

State aid: Commission approves €24.7 million of Italian support to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found €24.7 million of Italian support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. This measure aims at (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €146.5 million Austrian State aid scheme to support companies joining a research and innovation project in microelectronics

230

State aid: Commission approves €146.5 million Austrian support in favour of companies joining research and innovation project in microelectronics* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €146.5 million in Austrian support in favour of three companies joining the existing (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €511 million Italian State aid scheme to compensate commercial rail passenger operators for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 outbreak

178

State aid: Commission approves €511 million Italian scheme to compensate commercial rail passenger operators for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €511 million in Italian support to compensate providers of commercial, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission publishes a public consultation to gather views and evidence from a panel to ensure that competition rules do not stand in the way of collective bargaining

355

Competition: Commission invites stakeholders to provide comments on the application of EU competition law to collective bargaining agreements for self-employed* The European Commission has launched today a public consultation to gather views and evidence from citizens, businesses, social (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation into possible anticompetitive conduct of a global pharmaceutical company in relation to a blockbuster multiple sclerosis medicine (Teva)

265

Antitrust: Commission opens formal investigation into possible anticompetitive conduct of Teva in relation to a blockbuster multiple sclerosis medicine* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether the pharmaceutical company Teva has illegally delayed (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether German plans to compensate lignite-fired power plants for phasing out earlier than foreseen are in line with EU State aid rules

168

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into compensation for early closure of lignite-fired power plants in Germany* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether German plans to compensate lignite-fired power plants for phasing out earlier than (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears the acquisition of American medical devices provider by leading medical imaging solutions company subject to conditions (Varian / Siemens Healthineers)

273

Mergers: Commission clears acquisition of Varian by Siemens Healthineers, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Varian Medical Systems by Siemens AG, through its subsidiary Siemens Healthineers. The approval is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission accepts commitments made by a pharmaceutical company to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% addressing excessive pricing concerns (Aspen)

486

Antitrust: Commission accepts commitments by Aspen to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% addressing excessive pricing concerns* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Aspen legally binding under EU antitrust rules. Aspen has to reduce its prices in Europe (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel organisers and facilitators of linked travel services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

276

State aid: Commission approves €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel organisers and facilitators of linked travel services in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens investigation into possible trade restrictions by one of the largest producers of chocolate, biscuits, and coffee in the European Union (Mondelēz)

242

Antitrust: Commission opens formal investigation into possible trade restrictions by Mondelēz* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether Mondelēz has restricted competition in a range of national markets for chocolate, biscuits and coffee by hindering (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines the owner of an online PC gaming platform and five publishers for entering into “geo-blocking” practices (Valve / Bandai Namco / Capcom / Focus Home / Koch Media / ZeniMax)

73

Antitrust: Commission fines Valve and five publishers of PC video games € 7.8 million for “geo-blocking” practices* The European Commission has fined Valve, owner of the online PC gaming platform “Steam”, and the five publishers Bandai Namco, Capcom, Focus Home, Koch Media and ZeniMax € 7.8 million (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears acquisition of American financial markets data and infrastructure provider by a financial infrastructure company subject to conditions (Refinitiv / London Stock Exchange)

223

Mergers: Commission clears acquisition of Refinitiv by London Stock Exchange Group, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the acquisition of Refinitiv by the London Stock Exchange Group (‘LSEG’). The approval is conditional on full (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves investment aid for Czech orchards and irrigations and opens investigations into national measures in favour of large agricultural companies

40

State aid: Commission approves investment aid for Czech orchards and irrigations; opens in-depth investigations into Czech measures in favour of large agricultural companies* The European Commission has approved two Czech investment aid support schemes for the restructuring of orchards and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €202 million Croatian scheme to support companies in the tourism and sports sectors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

214

State aid: Commission approves €202 million Croatian scheme to support companies in the tourism and sports sectors in the context of coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an approximately €202 million (HRK 1.525 billion) Croatian State aid scheme to support companies of all (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €73 million of Italian support to compensate national airline for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak (Alitalia)

45

State aid: Commission approves €73 million of Italian support to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found €73.02 million of Italian support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. This measure aims at (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €120 million Greek support to compensate national airline company for damages suffered due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Aegean Airlines)

167

State aid: Commission approves €120 million Greek support to compensate Aegean Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a Greek grant of €120 million to Aegean Airlines to be in line with EU State aid rules. The measure aims at compensating the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation into the proposed acquisition of an insurance brokerage company by a global risk management firm (Aon / Willis Towers Watson)

233

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Willis Towers Watson by Aon* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Willis Towers Watson by Aon, under the EU Merger Regulation. Aon and Willis Tower Watson (...)

European Commission The EU Commission publishes guiding templates to assist Member States in the design of their national recovery and resilience plans, consults on a possible extension of the general block exemption regulation, and conducts a survey on the implementation of the State aid temporary framework

362

State aid: Commission puts forward initiatives to further facilitate implementation of recovery and coronavirus support measures * The European Commission has today published guiding templates to assist Member States in the design of their national recovery and resilience plans in line with EU (...)

European Commission The EU Commission gives green light to the pan-European guarantee fund to enable up to €200 billion of additional financing for companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in 21 Member States

113

State aid: Commission gives green light to the Pan-European Guarantee Fund to enable up to €200 billion financing for companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak in 21 Member States* The European Commission found the creation of a €25 billion Pan-European Guarantee Fund managed by the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €106.7 million restructuring aid and €30.2 compensation for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak in favour of French airline (Corsair)

106

State aid: Commission approves €106.7 million restructuring aid and €30.2 compensation for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak in favour of French airline Corsair* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, two French measures in favour of Corsair, an airline active (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €20 million voucher scheme to support access to broadband services by students in Greece essential in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

93

State aid: Commission approves €20 million voucher scheme to support access to broadband services by students in Greece* The European Commission has approved under EU State aid rules a €20 million voucher scheme to help students in Greece access broadband services and benefit from remote online (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears several telecommunication undertakings’ acquisition of fibre network operator, subject to conditions (Altice / Allianz / Omer / Covage)

114

Mergers: Commission clears Altice, Allianz and Omers’ joint acquisition of Covage, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Covage by SFR FTTH, a company jointly controlled by Altice, Allianz and Omers. The approval (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines two pharmaceutical companies €60.5 million for delaying the entry of cheaper generic medicine for sleep disorders (Teva / Cephalon)

113

Antitrust: Commission fines Teva and Cephalon €60.5 million for delaying entry of cheaper generic medicine* The European Commission has fined the pharmaceutical companies Teva and Cephalon €60.5 million for agreeing to delay for several years the market entry of a cheaper generic version of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Austrian ”Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support uncovered fixed costs of companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

131

State aid: Commission approves Austrian ”Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support uncovered fixed costs of companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved the Austrian “Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support the uncovered fixed costs of companies (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a global e-commerce company for the use of non-public independent seller data and opens a second investigation into its e-commerce business practices (Amazon)

330

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Amazon for the use of non-public independent seller data and opens second investigation into its e-commerce business practices* The European Commission has informed Amazon of its preliminary view that it has breached EU antitrust rules by (...)

European Commission The EU Commission takes note of the General Court’s judgment confirming its decision to prohibit an acquisition in the construction sector in Hungary and Croatia (HeidelbergCement / Schwenk Zement / Cemex)

235

Mergers: Commission takes note of General Court judgment in HeidelbergCement/Schwenk/Cemex Hungary/Cemex Croatia merger case* The European Commission takes note of the judgment of the General Court, which confirms the Commission’s decision prohibiting the acquisition by HeidelbergCement and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation to assess whether a Belgian capacity mechanism to safeguard the security of electricity supply is in line with EU State aid rules

157

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into Belgian capacity mechanism* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether a Belgian capacity mechanism to safeguard security of electricity supply is in line with EU State aid rules. Executive (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €199.45 million Italian support to compensate a national airline for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Alitalia)

211

State aid: Commission approves €199.45 million Italian support to compensate Alitalia for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found Italian €199.45 million support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. The measure aims at compensating (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €62 million Romanian loan guarantee to compensate a national airline for damage suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic and provide the airline with urgent liquidity support (Blue Air)

183

State aid: Commission approves €62 million Romanian loan guarantee to compensate Blue Air for damage suffered due to coronavirus outbreak and provide the airline with urgent liquidity support* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a Romanian loan guarantee of up to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves German plans for a Bavarian fund to enable up to €46 billion of liquidity and capital support to enterprises in Bavaria in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

149

State aid: Commission approves Bavarian fund to enable up to €46 billion of liquidity and capital support to enterprises in Bavaria in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved German plans to set up a €46 billion fund at the level of the German State (Land) (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €133 million Portuguese liquidity support to national airline and opens investigation into the airline’s other public support measures (SATA Air)

189

State aid: Commission approves €133 million Portuguese liquidity support to SATA airline; opens investigation into other public support measures* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €133 million in liquidity support to SATA Air Açores (SATA). The aid will allow the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves an acquisition of a payment solution provider’s account-to-account payment business by a global payment card company, subject to conditions (Nets / Mastercard)

199

Mergers: Commission approves acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard. The decision is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into public support for expansion of a chemical company’s electric vehicles battery plant in Poland (LG Chem)

236

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into public support for expansion of LG Chem’s electric vehicles battery plant in Poland* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether €95 million of public support granted by Poland to chemical company LG Chem (...)

European Commission The EU Commission recommends that Members States not grant financial support, including State aid, to companies with links to tax havens, especially in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

212

State Aid: Commission recommends not granting financial support to companies with links to tax havens* The European Commission has today recommended that Member States do not grant financial support to companies with links to countries that are on the EU’s list of non-cooperative tax (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on pharmaceutical company’s proposed commitment to reduce the price by 73% for six off-patent cancer medicines to remove the Commission’s excessive pricing concerns (Aspen)

228

Antitrust: Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by Aspen to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% to address Commission’s concerns over excessive pricing* The European Commission invites comments from all interested parties on commitments offered by Aspen to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger subject to conditions of Polish integrated oil & gas companies active in many Central & Eastern European and Baltic countries, subject to conditions (Lotos / PKN Orlen)

213

Mergers: Commission clears Lotos’ acquisition by PKN Orlen, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the acquisition of Grupa Lotos by PKN Orlen. The approval is conditional on full compliance with a commitments package offered by PKN Orlen. (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines ethylene purchasers €260 million in cartel settlement for colluding to buy at the lowest possible price (Orbia / Clariant / Celanese / Westlake)

497

Antitrust: Commission fines ethylene purchasers € 260 million in cartel settlement* The European Commission has fined Orbia, Clariant and Celanese a total of € 260 million for breaching EU antitrust rules. Westlake was not fined as it revealed the cartel to the Commission. The companies took (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €150 million Austrian subordinated loan to compensate a national airline company for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Austrian Airlines)

240

State aid: Commission approves €150 million Austrian subordinated loan to compensate Austrian Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found an Austrian €150 million subordinated loan (convertible into a grant) in favour of Austrian Airlines AG to be (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a third amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments during the COVID-19 outbreak

151

State aid: Commission expands Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments* The European Commission has adopted a third amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €6 billion German measure to recapitalise a major national airline and weather the economic effects of COVID-19 outbreak (Lufthansa)

173

State aid: Commission approves €6 billion German measure to recapitalise Lufthansa* The European Commission has approved German plans to contribute €6 billion to the recapitalisation of Deutsche Lufthansa AG (DLH), the parent company of Lufthansa Group. The measure was approved under the State (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of a major financial data provider by one of the world’s largest stock exchange groups (Refinitiv / London Stock Exchange Group)

140

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Refinitiv by London Stock Exchange Group* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Refinitiv by the London Stock Exchange Group (“LSEG”) under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission consults the Member States on the proposal to expand State aid Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak

287

Coronavirus: Commission Statement on consulting Member States on proposal to expand State aid Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments* Today, the European Commission has sent to Member States for consultation a draft (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Polish recapitalization scheme to enable up to €1.65 billion of capital support to SMEs and large enterprises affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

219

State aid: Commission approves Polish recapitalisation scheme to enable up to €1.65 billion of capital support to SMEs and large enterprises affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Polish recapitalisation scheme of up to €1.65 billion (PLN 7.5 billion) to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.2 billion Portuguese urgent liquidity support to its major national airline company, whose already existing liquidity needs to be increased with COVID-19 (Transportes Aéreos Portugueses)

298

State aid: Commission approves €1.2 billion Portuguese urgent liquidity support to TAP* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, Portugal’s plans to grant a €1.2 billion rescue loan in favour of Transportes Aéreos Portugueses SGPS S.A. (“TAP”). The measure will provide TAP (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €286 million Finnish State aid measure to recapitalise a national airline which is considered essential to the recovery of the national economy after the COVID-19 outbreak (Finnair)

271

State aid: Commission approves €286 million Finnish measure to recapitalise Finnair* The European Commission has approved Finnish plans to contribute to the recapitalisation of Finnair through the subscription of new shares by the State in the rights issue launched by Finnair on 10 June 2020 in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves, subject to conditions, an acquisition of global pharma company’s animal health division by animal health company subject to divestments (Bayer / Elanco Animal Health)

288

Mergers: Commission approves acquisition of Bayer’s animal health division by Elanco, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Bayer AGs animal health division by Elanco Animal Health Inc. The decision is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research and development as well as testing infrastructures and production of COVID-19 relevant products

475

State aid: Commission approves €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing infrastructures and production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research and development, testing and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission consults stakeholders on a possible competition tool that would allow addressing structural competition problems, such as tipping markets, in a timely and effective manner

640

Antitrust: Commission consults stakeholders on a possible new competition tool* The European Commission has published today an inception impact assessment as well as an open public consultation inviting comments on exploring the need for a possible new competition tool that would allow (...)

European Commission The EU Commission waives all structural remedies committed to by merging pharmaceutical parties due to new significant permanent changes in market conditions during the divestiture process (Takeda / Shire)

206

Mergers: Commission waives the commitments made by Takeda to obtain clearance of its acquisition of Shire* The European Commission has waived, under the EU Merger Regulation, the commitments made by Takeda to obtain clearance of its acquisition of Shire. The Commission approved the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Lithuanian fund to enable up to €1 billion of liquidity and capital support to medium-sized and large enterprises affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

238

State aid: Commission approves Lithuanian fund to enable up to €1 billion of liquidity and capital support to medium-sized and large enterprises affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved Lithuanian plans to set up a fund with a target size of up to €1 billion (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into a proposed merger between 2 leading airlines operating routes between Canada and Europe while recognizing the target markets are significantly impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak (Transat / Air Canada)

339

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Transat by Air Canada* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Transat by Air Canada, under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €322 million Croatian loan guarantees and subsidised loans scheme for micro, small and medium-sized companies affected by COVID-19 outbreak

219

State aid: Commission approves €322 million Croatian loan guarantees and subsidised loans scheme for micro, small and medium-sized companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an approximately €322 million (HRK 2.450 million) Croatian scheme for loan (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on an updated proposal on simplified rules for State aid combined with EU support, inspired by temporary rules for aid to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak

286

State aid: Commission invites comments on updated proposal on simplified rules for State aid combined with EU support* The European Commission is inviting Member States and other stakeholders to comment on its updated proposal to exempt from prior Commission scrutiny under EU State aid rules (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €650 million Dutch scheme to compensate companies in the floriculture, specialty horticulture, and potato sectors for damage caused by COVID-19 outbreak

201

State aid: Commission approves €650 million Dutch scheme to compensate companies in the floriculture, specialty horticulture and potato sectors for damage caused by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a €650 million Dutch scheme that compensates companies in the floriculture, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission expands Temporary Framework to a recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

311

State aid: Commission expands Temporary Framework to recapitalisation and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves four Danish schemes granting tax deferrals and comparable measures to ease liquidity constraints in SME’s facing difficulties due to the COVID-19 pandemic

243

STATE AID: COMMISSION APPROVES €130 MILLION DANISH SCHEMES TO SUPPORT SMES AFFECTED BY CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK* The European Commission has approved four Danish schemes with a budget of DKK 970 million (approximately €130 million) granting tax deferrals and comparable measures to ease liquidity (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, and testing as well as production of COVID-19 relevant products

304

State aid: Commission approves German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing and production of coronavirus relevant (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €5 million Lithuanian scheme in the form of loan interest payments for SMEs active in road freight transport affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

226

State aid: Commission approves €5 million Lithuanian scheme for SMEs active in road freight transport affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €5 million direct grant scheme to support the Lithuanian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €2 billion Slovenian State aid scheme including a dozen of measures to support companies affected by the COVID-19 crisis

168

State aid: Commission approves €2 billion Slovenian “umbrella” scheme to support the economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €2 billion Slovenian State aid scheme to support the Slovenian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Belgian €200,000 direct grant scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in Brussels-Capital region following COVID-19 outbreak

172

State aid: Commission approves €200,000 direct grant scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in Brussels-Capital region following coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €200,000 Belgian regional scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €3 billion Finnish scheme that includes both direct grants and loan guarantees to support companies affected by COVID-19 outbreak

157

State aid: Commission approves €3 billion Finnish scheme to support companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Finnish scheme to support the Finnish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €700 million Polish State aid scheme to support companies including the agricultural and fishery sectors that are affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

134

State aid: Commission approves €700 million Polish aid scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €700 million scheme to support the Polish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The support measures available under the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €7.8 billion Polish schemes to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak including direct grants, tax deferrals, and wage subsidies

149

State aid: Commission approves €7.8 billion Polish schemes to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved 11 Polish State aid schemes, with a total budget of PLN 35.1 billion (approximately €7.8 billion), to support the Polish economy in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears merger of generic Big Pharma company with a competitor’s generic division, subject to the divestment of business for certain generic medicines (Mylan / Upjohn)

160

Mergers: Commission approves the merger of Mylan and Pfizer’s Upjohn division, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed merger between the global pharmaceutical company Mylan and Upjohn, a business division of Pfizer, which (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €100 million Italian guarantee scheme to support SMEs in the agriculture, forestry, fishery, and aquaculture sectors affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

197

State aid: Commission approves €100 million Italian guarantee scheme to support SMEs in the agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture sectors affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €100 million Italian State aid scheme to support small and medium-sized (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €50 million Italian subsidized loans scheme to support agriculture, forestry, and fishery sectors affected by COVID-19 outbreak in Friuli Venezia Giulia region

175

State aid: Commission approves €50 million Italian subsidised loans scheme to support agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors affected by coronavirus outbreak in Friuli Venezia Giulia region* The European Commission has approved a €50 million Italian scheme to support the agricultural, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €200 million Irish scheme in the form of direct grants, repayable advances, equity injections, and subsidised loans to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

142

State aid: Commission approves €200 million Irish scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €200 million Irish scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme, called “Sustaining Enterprise Scheme”, was (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1 billion Hungary State aid scheme to support companies through direct grants, loans, and equity measures during the COVID-19 outbreak

140

State aid: Commission approves €1 billion Hungarian aid scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a HUF 350 billion (approximately €1 billion) scheme to support the Hungarian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €35.5 million Latvian direct grant scheme to support agriculture, fishery, food, and school catering sectors in COVID-19 outbreak

172

State aid: Commission approves €35.5 million Latvian direct grant scheme to support agriculture, fishery, food and school catering sectors in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €35.5 million Latvian scheme to support the agricultural, fishery, food and school catering (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves prolongation and modification of the French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to COVID-19 outbreak

252

State aid: Commission approves prolongation and modification of the French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found France’s prolongation and modification of a previously approved scheme to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Italian guarantee scheme for new working capital and investment loans granted by banks to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

238

State aid: Commission approves Italian guarantee scheme to support the economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an Italian aid scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary Framework (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1 billion Croatian State aid scheme that will take the form of zero-interest loans to help companies affected by the COVID-19 crisis

141

State aid: Commission approves €1 billion Croatian schemes to support companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved two Croatian schemes to support the Croatian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The schemes were approved under the State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €15 billion Austrian liquidity State aid scheme in the form of direct grants, state guarantees for loans, and subsidised public loans to support the economy in the context of the COVID-19 crisis

156

State aid: Commission approves €15 billion Austrian liquidity scheme to support the economy in the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €15 billion Austrian liquidity scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under (...)

European Commission The EU Commission issues a Temporary Framework Communication on allowing limited cooperation among businesses, and a comfort letter especially for critical hospital medicines during the COVID-19 outbreak

797

Antitrust: Commission provides guidance on allowing limited cooperation among businesses, especially for critical hospital medicines during the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has published a Temporary Framework Communication to provide antitrust guidance to companies cooperating (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €140 million Hungarian State aid scheme managed by the Hungarian investment promotion agency to help the national economy during the COVID-19 crisis

173

The European Commission has approved a HUF 50 000 million (approximately €140 million) Hungarian aid scheme to support the Hungarian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary Framework adopted by the Commission on 19 March 2020, as (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €30 million Luxembourg State aid scheme related to research and development and investment in the production during the COVID-19 crisis

162

State aid: Commission approves €30 million Luxembourg scheme to support research and development and investments in the production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €30 million Luxembourg aid scheme to support coronavirus related research and development (...)

European Commission The EU Commission extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to accelerate research, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products, to protect jobs, and to further support the economy in the COVID-19 outbreak

314

State aid: Commission extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to accelerate research, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products, to protect jobs and to further support the economy in the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has adopted an amendment extending (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €23 million Dutch scheme of direct grants to support providers of social support services and health care as well as youth care in offering services at home during the COVID-19 pandemic

201

State aid: Commission approves €23 million Dutch scheme to support the economy in the current coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €23 million Dutch scheme to support certain providers of social support and health care in offering services at home during the coronavirus (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €350 million Maltese guarantee scheme for working capital loans granted by commercial banks to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

152

State aid: Commission approves €350 million Maltese guarantee scheme to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Maltese State aid scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a Spanish “umbrella” scheme with measures that include direct grants and tax advantages, and where recipients include the self-employed affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

187

State aid: Commission approves Spanish “umbrella” scheme to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Spanish aid scheme to support the Spanish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.2 billion French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to COVID-19 outbreak

237

State aid: Commission approves €1.2 billion French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found France’s €1.2 billion scheme to support small and micro-enterprises as well as self-employed people (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.75 billion Estonian schemes to support companies with loan guarantees and direct loans under favorable terms during COVID-19 outbreak

132

State aid: Commission approves €1.75 billion Estonian schemes to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved two Estonian State aid schemes to support the Estonian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The schemes were approved under the State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves under EU State aid rules €1.3 billion Danish scheme that partially compensates the self-employed for the losses of turnover suffered due to the COVID-19

144

The European Commission has approved under EU State aid rules a DKK 10 billion (approximately €1.3 billion) Danish scheme that partially compensates the self-employed for the losses of turnover suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak. Executive Vice-President Margrethe Vestager, in charge of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds Latvian loan guarantee scheme and subsidised loan scheme of €250 million for companies affected by coronavirus outbreak to be in line with EU State aid rules

129

State aid: Commission approves state support for €250 million Latvian subsidised loan scheme and loan guarantee scheme for companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found Latvian loan guarantee scheme and subsidised loan scheme for companies affected by coronavirus (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation into public service delegation contracts for maritime services which potentially constitute State aid in Corsica (Corsica Linea)

147

State aid: Commission launches in-depth investigation into public service delegation contracts for maritime services to Corsica* The European Commission has launched an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public service delegation contracts for maritime services to Corsica awarded (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves under State aid rules public support of over €22 million to upgrade the traffic management equipment on freight locomotives in the Netherlands

404

State aid: Commission approves over €22 million of public support to promote rail transport operability in the Netherlands* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €22.2 million of public support to upgradetraffic management equipment on freight locomotives in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation into a possible collusion by two French retailers in a purchasing alliance (Casino Guichard-Perrachon / Les Mousquetaires)

544

Antitrust: Commission opens investigation into possible collusion by two French retailers in a purchasing alliance* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether two French groups of retailers, Casino Guichard-Perrachon (known as ‘Casino’) and Les (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether various financing measures granted by Hungarian State-owned entities to a company operating in the ground handling market comply with EU rules for aid to companies in difficulty (Malév)

417

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into Hungarian support measures to Malév Ground Handling* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether various financing measures totalling approximately €21 million granted by Hungarian State-owned entities to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether the plan by the Spanish region of Valencia to grant public support to a regional airline company is in line with EU State aid rules (Air Nostrum)

414

State aid: Commission opens investigation into public support for Air Nostrum’s fleet renewal in Spain* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether the plan by the Spanish region of Valencia to grant €9 million of public support to regional airline Air Nostrum (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to multiple multinational companies are in line with EU State aids rules

351

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigations into individual “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to 39 multinational companies* The European Commission has opened separate in-depth investigations to assess whether “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to 39 multinational (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objection to operators of mobile telephony regarding their network sharing agreement in the Czech market (O2 / CETIN / T-Mobile)

831

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to O2 CZ, CETIN and T-Mobile CZ for their network sharing agreement* The European Commission has informed Czech operators of mobile telephony O2 CZ and T-Mobile CZ, as well as the Czech telecom infrastructure provider CETIN of its preliminary (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that the marketing agreements concluded between a local Association for the promotion of touristic and economic flows and an airline company are illegal under EU State aid rules (Ryanair / Montpellier airport)

470

State aid: France to recover €8.5 million of illegal aid to Ryanair at Montpellier airport* The European Commission has found that the marketing agreements concluded between the local Association for the Promotion of Touristic and Economic Flows (APFTE) and Ryanair at the airport of Montpellier (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation against a designer of integrated circuits for wired communication devices and sends a Statement of Objections seeking to impose interim measures in TV and modem chipsets markets (Broadcom)

364

The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether Broadcom may be restricting competition through exclusivity practices, in breach of EU rules. The Commission intends to impose interim measures during the investigation with regard to TV and modem chipsets (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether some capital injections granted by Denmark and Sweden to postal companies are in line with EU State aid rules (PostNord / Post Danmark)

300

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into capital injections in favour of PostNord and Post Danmark* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether certain capital injections granted by Denmark and Sweden to PostNord and Post Danmark are in line (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public financing model of the Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules

255

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into public financing of Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public financing model of the Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens investigation into an insurance association in Ireland to assess whether the conditions of access to its Insurance Link data pooling system may restrict competition (Insurance Ireland)

393

Antitrust: Commission opens investigation into Insurance Ireland data pooling system* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation into Insurance Ireland to assess whether the conditions of access to its Insurance Link data pooling system may restrict competition, in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a multinational conglomerate company for providing incorrect information during the assessment of its merger (General Electric)

349

Mergers: Commission fines General Electric €52 million for providing incorrect information in LM Wind takeover* The European Commission has fined General Electric €52 million for providing incorrect information during the Commission’s investigation under the EU Merger Regulation of GE’s planned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends statements of objections to an American video game developer and five videogame publishers for “geo-blocking” of PC video games (Valve / Focus Home / Koch Media / ZeniMax / Bandai Namco / Capcom)

209

Antitrust: Commission sends Statements of Objections to Valve and five videogame publishers on “geo-blocking” of PC video games* The European Commission has informed Valve, owner of the “Steam” video game distribution platform, and five videogame publishers, of its preliminary view that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission imposes a fine totaling €12.5 million on a multinational company selling football apparel and footwear for restricting cross-border sales of its merchandise (Nike)

404

Antitrust: Commission fines Nike €12.5 million for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products* The European Commission has fined Nike €12.5 million for banning traders from selling licensed merchandise to other countries within the EEA. This restriction concerned merchandising (...)

European Commission The EU Commission imposes a fine of € 1.49 billion on a search engine company for abusing its dominant position by imposing restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party websites (Google AdSense)

638

Antitrust: Commission fines Google €1.49 billion for abusive practices in online advertising* The European Commission has fined Google €1.49 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Google has abused its market dominance by imposing a number of restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party (...)

European Commission The EU Commission accepts remedies proposed by entertainment companies ending competition concerns in the pay-TV services market (Disney / NBC Universal / Sony Pictures / Warner Bros / Sky)

625

Antitrust: Commission accepts commitments by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky on cross-border pay-TV services* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky legally binding under EU antitrust rules. (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether Danish and Swedish public support for a fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules (Øresund)

323

State aid: Commission opens in-depth investigation into public financing of Øresund fixed rail-road link* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether Danish and Swedish public support for the Øresund fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules. This (...)

European Commission The EU Commission authorizes Greece under EU State aid rules to extend by 20 years the concession for the operation of an national airport (Athens International Airport)

204

State aid: Commission finds no aid in €1.1 billion extension of Athens International Airport concession* The European Commission has authorised Greece, under EU State aid rules, to extend by 20 years the concession granted to AIA to operate Athens International Airport. The fee AIA will pay for (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites interested parties to comment on the commitments offered by two credit card companies to address competition concerns relating to inter-regional interchange fees for card payment transactions (Mastercard II / Visa)

206

Antitrust: Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by Visa and Mastercard on inter-regional interchange fees* The European Commission is inviting comments from interested parties on commitments offered separately by Visa and Mastercard to address competition concerns relating to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation to assess whether agreements between booking system providers and airlines and travel agents restrict competition (Amadeus / Sabre)

399

Antitrust: Commission opens investigation into airline ticket distribution services* The European Commission has opened a formal investigation to assess whether agreements between booking system providers Amadeus and Sabre on the one hand, and airlines and travel agents on the other, may (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger, subject to remedies, in the markets of production and distribution of films for release in movie theaters and distribution of content for home entertainment and licensing of films and other TV content (Fox / Disney)

301

Mergers: Commission approves Disney’s acquisition of parts of Fox, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of parts of Fox by Disney, both US based global media companies. The decision is conditional on full (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess a merger in the market of the supply of rolled copper products and sanitary copper tubes (MKM /KME)

390

Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into KME’s proposed acquisition of competing copper products supplier MKM* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of MKM by KME, under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominance by imposing illegal restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)

685

Antitrust: Commission fines Google €4.34 billion for illegal practices regarding Android mobile devices to strengthen dominance of Google’s search engine* The European Commission has fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Since 2011, Google has imposed illegal restrictions (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation to assess whether supply agreements between Qatari petrol companies and EU importers restrain competition (Qatar Petroleum)

527

Antitrust: Commission opens investigation into restrictions to the free flow of gas sold by Qatar Petroleum in Europe* The European Commission has opened a formal investigation to assess whether supply agreements between Qatar Petroleum companies exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission welcomes provisional agreement reached by the EU Parliament and Council concerning new rules to make national competition authorities even more effective enforcers (ECN+ Directive)

365

Commission welcomes provisional political agreement reached by European Parliament and Council on new rules to make national competition authorities even more effective enforcers* The European Commission welcomes the provisional political agreement reached today by the European Parliament and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines eight producers of capacitors for cartel (Elna / Hitachi Chemical / Holy Stone / Matsuo / NEC Tokin / Nichicon / Nippon Chemi-Con / Rubycon)

813

Antitrust: Commission fines eight producers of capacitors €254 million for participating in cartel* The European Commission has fined Elna, Hitachi Chemical, Holy Stone, Matsuo, NEC Tokin, Nichicon, Nippon Chemi-Con, Rubycon € 253 935 000. Together with the immunity applicant, Sanyo, they (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines maritime car carriers and car parts suppliers in three separate cartel cases (MOL / NYK / K Line / Wwl-Eukor / Csav) (Denso / Bosch / NGK) (TRW / Continental)

918

Antitrust: Commission fines maritime car carriers and car parts suppliers a total of €546 million in three separate cartel settlements* In three separate decisions, the European Commission has fined four maritime car carriers €395 million, two suppliers of spark plugs €76 million, and two (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger subject to remedies in the global media market and rejects a referral request by the Polish Competition Authority (Discovery / Scripps)

488

Mergers: Commission approves Discovery’s acquisition of Scripps, subject to conditions; rejects referral request by Polish competition authority* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Scripps by Discovery, both US based global media (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines the incumbent Lithuanian railway company for abuse of dominance on the rail freight market by dismantling part of the track (Baltic Rail)

375

Antitrust: Commission fines Lithuanian Railways €28 million for hindering competition on rail freight market* The European Commission has fined Lithuanian Railways (Lietuvos geležinkeliai) an amount of €27 873 000 for hindering competition on the rail freight market, in breach of EU antitrust (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends statements of objection to three undertakings regarding possible breach of EU merger procedural rules (Merck / Sigma-Aldric ; GE / LM Wind ; Canon / Toshiba Medical Systems)

404

Mergers: Commission alleges Merck and Sigma-Aldrich, General Electric, and Canon breached EU merger procedural rules* The Commission has sent three separate Statements of Objections to Merck and Sigma-Aldrich, General Electric and Canon alleging they breached EU merger rules: General Electric, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a new anonymous whistleblower tool

221

Antitrust: Commission introduces new anonymous whistleblower tool* A new tool to make it easier for individuals to alert the Commission about secret cartels and other antitrust violations while maintaining their anonymity has been launched by the European Commission today. Individuals can now (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines six suppliers of car air conditioning and engine cooling €155 million in cartel settlement (Behr / Calsonic / Denso / Panasonic / Sanden / Valeo)

294

Antitrust: Commission fines six car air conditioning and engine cooling suppliers € 155 million in cartel settlement* The European Commission has fined Behr, Calsonic, Denso, Panasonic, Sanden and Valeo a total of € 155 million for taking part in one or more of four cartels concerning supplies (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a social network suspected of having transmitted misleading informations concerning a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)

244

Mergers: Commission alleges Facebook provided misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Facebook alleging the company provided incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections against two airlines concerning a potentially anticompetitive codeshare agreement (Brussels Airlines / TAP Portugal)

265

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Brussels Airlines and TAP Portugal on code-sharing on Brussels-Lisbon route* The European Commission has informed Brussels Airlines and TAP Portugal of its preliminary view that their codeshare cooperation on passenger services between (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to an international sports association suspected to have breached EU antitrust rules (International Skating Union)

164

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to International Skating Union on its eligibility rules* The European Commission has informed the International Skating Union (ISU) of its preliminary view that the ISU rules under which athletes face severe penalties for participation in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger, subject to remedies, in the telecommunication market and rejects a referral request issued by the Dutch competition authority (Vodafone / Liberty Global)

200

MERGERS: COMMISSION CLEARS VODAFONE/LIBERTY GLOBAL TELECOMS JOINT VENTURE, SUBJECT TO CONDITION; REJECTS REFERRAL REQUEST BY DUTCH COMPETITION AUTHORITY * The European Commission has cleared under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed creation of a joint venture in the Netherlands by mobile (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a technology company suspected of imposing restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)

250

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Google on Android operating system and applications* The European Commission has informed Google of its preliminary view that the company has, in breach of EU antitrust rules, abused its dominant position by imposing restrictions on (...)

European Commission The EU Commission allows the early termination of commitments made by a railway power supplier, following the entry of new competitors to the market (Deutsche Bahn)

229

Antitrust: successful market opening allows early termination of commitments in Deutsche Bahn case* The European Commission has relieved Deutsche Bahn ahead of schedule from commitments made binding in December 2013, as several competitors have now entered the German railway traction current (...)

European Commission The EU Commission pursues its in-depth investigation on a merger in the mobile telecommunications services market without referral to the UK NCA (Hutchison / Telefónica UK)

139

MERGERS: COMMISSION CONTINUES INVESTIGATION OF HUTCHISON 3G / TELEFÓNICA UK MERGER WITHOUT REFERRAL TO UK* Commission does not refer investigation of Hutchison/Telefónica UK merger to UK The European Commission has decided not to refer the planned acquisition of Telefónica UKby Hutchison to the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation concerning undue tax benefits potentially granted by Luxembourg to a fast food restaurant chain (McDonald’s)

97

State aid: Commission opens formal investigation into Luxembourg’s tax treatment of McDonald’s* The Commission has opened a formal probe into Luxembourg’s tax treatment of McDonald’s. Its preliminary view is that a tax ruling granted by Luxembourg may have granted McDonald’s an advantageous tax (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves the acquisition by a rival of a data center operator subject to the divestment of several data centers in Amsterdam, London, and Frankfurt (Telecity / Equinix)

256

MERGERS: COMMISSION CLEARS ACQUISITION OF TELECITY BY EQUINIX, SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS* The European Commission has approved the proposed acquisition of data centre operator Telecity by rival Equinix subject to the divestment of a number of data centres in Amsterdam, London and Frankfurt. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears an acquisition in the markets of oil and gas exploration, the liquefaction of gas and the wholesale supply of liquefied natural gas (BG Group / Royal Dutch Shell)

172

Commission clears acquisition of BG Group by Royal Dutch Shell* The transaction was cleared as it will not grant Shell market power in oil and gas exploration, LNG liquefaction or LNG wholesale supply. Shell will also not be able to prevent competitors from using its gas infrastructure in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission open an in-depth investigation concerning a merger in the market of small package delivery, freight forwarding and cargo transportation services (TNT / FedEx)

229

MERGERS: COMMISSION OPENS IN-DEPTH INVESTIGATION INTO PROPOSED TNT BY FEDEX * The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether the proposed acquisition of TNT Express by FedEx Corporation is in line with the EU Merger Regulation. Both companies are major global (...)

European Commission The EU Commission partially refers a proposed merger to the Danish Competition Authority in the market of pig meat and clears the merger outside Denmark (Danish Crown / Tican)

83

Commission partially refers Danish Crown / Tican merger to Denmark’s competition authority; clears proposed merger outside Denmark* The European Commission has partially referred the proposed merger between Danish Crown and Tican to the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (DCCA) at its (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a credit card company regarding its cross-border rules and inter-regional interchange fees (Mastercard II)

83

Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to MasterCard on cross-border rules and inter-regional interchange fees* The European Commission today has sent a Statement of Objections to MasterCard. The Statement of Objections outlines the Commission’s preliminary view that MasterCard’s (...)

European Commission The EU Commission launches a market test concerning the commitments proposed by an electricity provider operating on the Bulgarian wholesale electricity market (Bulgarian Energy Holding)

210

Commission market tests commitments by Bulgarian Energy Holding (BEH) concerning Bulgarian wholesale electricity market* The European Commission is inviting comments from interested parties on commitments offered by the State-owned Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD (BEH) to address competition (...)

European Commission Glossary: Antitrust

3761

Field of competition law and policy. In the EU context, both the rules governing anti-competitive agreements and practices (cartels and other forms of collusion) based on Article 101 TFEU and the rules prohibiting abuses of (existing) dominant positions based on Article 102 TFEU are commonly (...)

European Commission Glossary: Inter-brand competition

31968

Competition between firms that have developed brands or labels for their products in order to distinguish them from other brands sold in the same market segment. Although not perceived as being fully equivalent by consumers, branded products ‘nevertheless’ compete with each other, but normally to (...)

European Commission Glossary: International co-operation

2524

Co-operation in the area of competition policy and enforcement between competition agencies in two (bilateral) or more countries (trilateral, plurilateral) which mostly takes place in an informal way, but sometimes on the basis of formal co-operation agreements. It aims at exchanging (...)

European Commission Glossary: Potential competition

9080

Pressure exercised upon incumbent firms by the possibility that new or existing firms will enter a specific market (potential competitor). New entrants may be attracted by above normal profits made in this market by incumbent firms, possibly as a result of weak competition. Additional firms (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Merger (notion)

24178

An amalgamation or joining of two or more firms into an existing firm or to form a new firm. A merger is a method by which firms can increase their size and expand into existing or new economic activities and markets. A variety of motives may exist for mergers: to increase economic efficiency, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Environmental protection

1501

In a Communication from the Commission - Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020 - environmental protection was defined as follow : "Any action designed to remedy or prevent damage to physical surroundings or natural resources by a beneficiary’s own activities, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Network effect

7501

Network effects arise when a good is more valuable to a user the more users adopt the same good or compatible ones. Economists refer to this phenomenon as a network externality because when additional consumers join the network of current consumers they have a beneficial "external" impact on (...)

European Commission Glossary: Horizontal agreement

8136

Arrangement between actual or see definition forpotential competitors, i.e. undertakings operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain, covering for example research and development, production, purchasing or commercialisation. Horizontal agreements may restrict (...)

European Commission Glossary: Amicus curiae

1822

Pursuant to Article 15(3) of Regulation 1/2003, the Commission, acting on its own initiative, may submit written observations ("amicus curiae" observations) to courts of the Member States where the coherent application of Article 101 or 102 TFEU so requires. © European Commission On this topic, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Competence

5482

European competences Mandatory application and decentralisation shift: the contributions of EC Regulation 1/2003 When EC Regulation 1/2003 came into force on 1 May 2004, the application of European law by national competition authorities (NCAs), optional until then, became compulsory. When (...)

European Commission Glossary: Concurrent jurisdiction

6625

Concurrent jurisdiction exists where two or more courts from different systems simultaneously have jurisdiction over a specific case. National courts play a key role in the enforcement of European competition policy. They may be called upon to apply Article 101 and/or 102 TFEU to a variety of (...)

European Commission Glossary: Direct effect

17133

The principle of direct effect enables individuals to immediately invoke a European provision before a national or European court. This principle only relates to certain European acts. Furthermore, it is subject to several conditions.The direct effect of European law is, along with the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Economic analysis

2611

Economic analysis plays a growing role in competition law. In the United States, the Chicago School raised economic arguments in the 1970s in order to criticize its enforcement, considered too hostile to big companies. While economic analysis subsequently evolved in a more nuanced direction, it (...)

European Commission Glossary: European Competition Network (ECN)

4987

The European Competition Network (ECN) has been established as a forum for discussion and cooperation of European competition authorities in cases where Articles 101 and and 102 of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union are applied. It should ensure an efficient division of work (...)

European Commission Glossary: Individual exemption

12318

Decision of the Commission pursuant to Article 101(3) of the TFEU to exempt notified agreements between companies from the prohibition of Article 101(1) of the TFEU, on the basis of an individual assessment. In broad terms, restrictive agreements qualify for exemption if their benefits to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Geographic market

9912

The relevant geographic market comprises the area in which the undertakings concerned are involved in the supply and Remand of products or services, in which the conditions of competition are sufficiently homogeneous and which can be distinguished from neighbouring areas because the conditions (...)

European Commission Glossary: Anticompetitive objet or effect

19979

According to the Commission’s Guidelines on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty: "The distinction between restrictions by object and restrictions by effect is important. Once it has been established that an agreement has as its object the restriction of competition, there is no need (...)

European Commission Glossary: Compulsory license

6521

A compulsory licence is an authorisation given by a national authority (Minister, National Patent Office etc.) to a person for the use and exploitation of a patented product or process without the consent of the patent holder. Compulsory licensing is an exception to the main principle of patent (...)

European Commission, French Competition Authority Glossary: Fine mitigating

1825

According to the European Commission’s Guidelines on the method of setting fines imposed pursuant to Article 23(2)(a) of Regulation No 1/2003, the basic amount of fines may be reduced where the Commission finds that mitigating circumstances exist, such as: where the undertaking concerned (...)

European Commission Glossary: Investigations / inquiries

2435

In order to carry out the duties assigned to it by Regulation 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the implementation of the rules on competition laid down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty, the Commission is empowered, for example, to: Send information requests to companies; In the context of an (...)

European Commission Glossary: Sole control

3647

Under the Commission Consolidated Jurisdictional Notice under Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings, sole control is defined as follow : "Sole control is acquired if one undertaking alone can exercise decisive influence on an undertaking. Two (...)

European Commission Glossary: Request for information

2310

Pursuant to Article 18 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 and Article 11 of Regulation (EC) 139/2004, in order to carry out the duties assigned to it by these Regulations, the Commission may, by simple request or by decision, require undertakings and associations of undertakings to provide all (...)

European Commission Glossary: Access to the file

5002

Right of natural or legal persons who are parties to a Commission investigation to see the Commission’s file, whenever the Commission proposes to adopt a decision which would be unfavourable to those parties. Access is given in the course of the administrative procedure to all the documents of (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Gun jumping

19484

The notification requirement is laid down in Article 4(1) of the Merger Regulation, which states that a concentration with a Union dimension must be notified prior to its implementation. It is complemented by the standstill obligation in Article 7(1) of the Merger Regulation, which prevents (...)

European Commission Glossary: Merger (withdrawal)

2183

"A concentration ceases to exist and the Merger Regulation ceases to be applicable if the undertakings concerned abandon the concentration. In this respect, the revised Merger Regulation 139/2004 introduced a new provision related to the closure of procedures concerning the control of (...)

European Commission Glossary: Cross subsidisation

11555

Cross subsidisation means that an undertaking bears or allocates all or part of the costs of its activity in one geographical or product market to its activity in another geographical or product market. Under certain circumstances, cross subsidisation in the postal sector, where nearly all (...)

European Commission Glossary: Clearance phase II (merger)

4820

Phase II is an in-depth analysis of the merger’s effects on competition and requires more time. It is opened when the case cannot be resolved in Phase I, i.e. when the Commission has concerns that the transaction could restrict competition in the internal market. A phase II investigation (...)

European Commission Glossary: Clearance phase I (merger)

4699

After notification of the merger the Commission has 25 working days to analyse the deal during the phase I investigation. More than 90% of all cases are resolved in Phase I, generally without remedies. A phase I review may involve the following: (i) Requests for information from the merging (...)

European Commission Glossary: Boycott

4753

A collective boycott occurs when a group of competitors agree to exclude an actual or potential competitor. This practice generally constitutes a restriction by object. © European Commission

European Commission Glossary: Agency agreement

12026

An agent is a legal or physical person vested with the power to negotiate and/or conclude contracts on behalf of another person (the principal), either in the agent’s own name or in the name of the principal, for the: (i) purchase of goods or services by the principal, or (ii) sale of goods or (...)

European Commission Glossary: Referral (merger)

3531

Community jurisdiction in the field of merger control is defined by the application of the turnover-related criteria contained in Articles 1(2) and 1(3) of the Merger Regulation. When dealing with concentrations, the Commission and Member States do not have concurrent jurisdiction. Rather, the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Exclusive purchasing

16759

"In exclusive purchasing agreements, the reseller agrees to purchase the contract goods only from the other party and not from any other supplier. The supplier is entitled to supply other resellers in the same sales area and at the same level of distribution. Unlike an exclusive distributor, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Ne bis in idem

8532

The ne bis in idem principle is laid down in Article 50 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: "No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted within the Union (...)

European Commission Glossary: Consumers protection

3105

Competition policy is about applying rules to make sure businesses and companies compete fairly with each other. This encourages enterprise and efficiency, creates a wider choice for consumers and helps reduce prices and improve quality. Low prices for all: the simplest way for a company to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Effect on trade between Member States

8004

The concept of "effect on trade" is the ground of jurisdiction which determines whether the European Union (EU) competition rules apply. It is particularly important in the new system for applying the rules, which obliges national courts and competition authorities to apply the EU competition (...)

European Commission Glossary: Annulment

4408

The action for annulment : The action for annulment is one of the actions which may be brought before the Court of Justice of the European Union. Through this action, the claimant requests the annulment of an act adopted by a European Union institution, body, office or organisation. The action (...)

European Commission Glossary: Access to essential facility

3208

"An undertaking which occupies a dominant position in the provision of an essential facility and itself uses that facility (i. e. a facility or infrastructure, without access to which competitors cannot provide services to their customers), and which refuses other companies access to that (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Joint venture

20821

Association of firms or individuals formed to undertake a specific business project. Under the EU competition rules, joint ventures are undertakings which are jointly controlled by two or more other undertakings. In practice joint ventures encompass a broad range of operations, from merger-like (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Cartel

70691

Arrangement(s) between competing firms designed to limit or eliminate competition between them, with the objective of increasing prices and profits of the participating companies and without producing any objective countervailing benefits. In practice, this is generally done by fixing prices, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Joint control

14840

Joint control exists where two or more undertakings or persons have the possibility of exercising decisive influence over another undertaking. Decisive influence in this sense normally means the power to block actions which determine the strategic commercial behaviour of an undertaking. Joint (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Brand competition

69145

Intra-brand competition : Competition among distributors or retailers of the same branded product, be it on price or non-price terms. For example, a pair of Levi’s jeans may be sold at a lower price in a discount store as compared to a department store but often without the amenities in services (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Intellectual property right

7527

General term for the assignment of property rights through, e.g., patents, copyrights or trademarks. These property rights give the holder the exclusive right to exploit the innovation. The holder thus has monopoly power on the use of the item, normally for a specified period of time and within (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Abuse of dominant position

66725

Anti-competitive business practices (including improper exploitation of customers or exclusion of competitors) in which a dominant firm may engage in order to maintain or increase its position on the market. Competition Law prohibits such behaviour, as it damages true competition between firms, (...)

European Commission Glossary: Damages

2542

According to the Communication from the Commission on quantifying harm in actions for damages based on breaches of Article 101 or 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union : "Infringements of Article 101 or 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”), (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Barriers to entry

71568

Barriers to entry are factors which prevent or hinder companies from entering a specific market. Entry barriers may result for instance from a particular market structure (e.g. sunk cost industry, brand loyalty of consumers to existing products) or the behaviour of incumbent firms. It is (...)

European Commission Glossary: Periodic penalty payment

8229

The Commission may by decision impose periodic penalty payments in order to compel an undertaking to stop an infringement of competition rules in accordance with an earlier decision. In such a case, a daily amount is fixed which has to be paid for every day the infringement continues after the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Vertical agreement

11813

Agreement or concerted Practice entered into between two or more undertakings each of which operates, for the purposes of the agreement, at a different level of the production or distribution chain, and relating to the conditions under which the parties may purchase, sell or resell certain (...)

European Commission Glossary: Hearing officer

4052

Independent senior official who is charged with organising hearings and with ensuring that they are properly conducted. The Hearing Officer thus contributes to the objectivity of the hearing itself, the observance of due process, the respect of the parties’ rights of defence and the objectivity (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Tying or tied selling

25920

Commercial practice of conditioning the sale of one product on the purchase of another product. If tying is not objectively justified by the nature of the products or their commercial usage, such practice may restrict competition. Economic theory suggests that a firm which enjoys market power (...)

European Commission Glossary: Substitutability

10336

Measure of the extent to which products may be seen as interchangeable from the viewpoint of producers or consumers. A firm’s pricing policy for a specific product is disciplined if consumers have the possibility to buy another product, which they judge as being equivalent by its nature, use (...)

European Commission Glossary: Collecting society

7222

Association, which collects payments made by users of intellectual property rights for the holders of such rights. For instance, a radio station, playing a record for which a record company holds a copyright, has to pay a fee to a collecting society, which then transfers the payments to the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Turnover threshold (merger)

11765

The combined annual turnover of the parties is used in the field of merger control as a criterion to divide competence between Member States and the Commission. concentrations where the parties’ combined turnover exceeds the thresholds set in Article 1 of the Merger Regulation are considered to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Services of general economic interest

14904

Services of an economic nature, the provision of which can be considered to be in the general interest. For example: basic, publicly accessible supply of energy, telecommunication, postal services, transport, water and waste disposal services. The Member States are primarily responsible for (...)

European Commission Glossary: Hard core restrictions

41269

Refers to restrictions of competition by agreements or business practices, which are seen by most jurisdictions as being particularly serious and normally do not produce any beneficial effects. They therefore almost always infringe competition law. Under EU law, the most prominent examples on (...)

European Commission Glossary: Ancillary restraints

33024

Restrictions on the parties to an agreement (including an agreement to form a concentration), which do not constitute the primary object of the agreement, but are directly related to and necessary for the proper functioning of the objectives envisaged by agreement. In the field of co-operation (...)

European Commission Glossary: International competition network (ICN)

8588

A project-oriented, consensus-based, informal network of antitrust agencies from developed and developing countries. The ICN serves to share experiences and exchange views on competition issues deriving from an ever-increasing globalisation of the world economy, as well as to encourage the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Absolute territorial protection

14546

Practice by manufacturers or suppliers relating to the resale of their products and leading to a separation of markets or territories. Under absolute territorial protection, a single distributor obtains the rights from a manufacturer to market a product in a certain territory and other (...)

European Commission Glossary: Compliance programme

7305

A company’s internal policy established to ensure its complete compliance with competition rules in all its business actions. In a compliance programme the company trains its personnel on competition rules and provides them with guidance on how to avoid agreements or practices which restrict (...)

European Commission Glossary: Merger control procedure

10266

The merger control procedure under EU law is laid down in the Merger Regulation (which was amended once) and in the implementing regulation. The Merger Regulation confers to the Commission the sole authority to assess concentrations with a Community dimension. Concentrations which meet the (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Resale price maintenance (RPM)

58323

Agreements or concerted Practices between a supplier and a dealer with the object of directly or indirectly establishing a fixed or minimum price or price level to be observed by the dealer when reselling a product/service to his customers. A provision which foresees resale price maintenance (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Predatory pricing

34957

A (deliberate) strategy, usually by a dominant firm, of driving competitors out of the market by setting prices below production costs. If the predator succeeds in driving existing competitors out of the market and in deterring future entry of new firms, he can subsequently raise prices and (...)

European Commission Glossary: Concerted practices

44073

Co-ordination between undertakings which, without having reached the stage of concluding a formal agreement, have knowingly substituted practical co-operation for the risks of competition. A concerted practice can be constituted by direct or indirect contact between firms whose intention or (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Market power

43896

Strength of a firm on a particular market. In basic economic terms, market power is the ability of firms to price above marginal cost and for this to be profitable. In competition analysis, market power is determined with the help of a structural analysis of the market, notably the calculation (...)

European Commission Glossary: Buyer power

21961

Ability of one or more buyers, based on their economic importance on the market in question, to obtain favourable purchasing terms from their suppliers. Buyer power is an important aspect in competition analysis, since powerful buyers may discipline the pricing policy of powerful sellers, thus (...)

European Commission Glossary: Complaint

8791

Request by a natural or legal person who claims a legitimate interest asking the Commission to investigate an alleged infringement of EU competition law and to bring it to an end. Formal complaints oblige the Commission to act (either to find that there is an infringement or to reject the (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Market share

20894

Measure for the relative size of a firm in an industry or market, in terms of the proportion of total output, sales or capacity it accounts for. In addition to profits, one of the frequently cited business objectives of firms is to increase market share. This is because market share, economies (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Free riding

4412

Free riding occurs when one firm (or individual) benefits from the actions and efforts of another without paying for or sharing the costs. For example, a retail store may initially choose to incur costs of training its staff to demonstrate to potential customers how a particular kitchen (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Oligopoly

33474

A market structure with few sellers, who realise their interdependence in taking strategic decisions, for instance, on price, output and quality. In an oligopoly, each firm is aware that its market behaviour will distinctly affect the other sellers and their market behaviour. As a result, each (...)

European Commission Glossary: Nullity

6422

Under Article 101(1) TFEU agreements between undertakings which restrict competition and may affect trade between Member States are prohibited. According to Article 101(2) TFEU they are void unless they are exempted from the prohibition under certain conditions laid down in Article 101(3) TFEU. (...)

European Commission Glossary: Notification

9866

Formal information which firms provide to the Commission under EU merger law in certain situations. The Merger Regulation obliges undertakings to notify any concentration of Community dimension to the Commission on the basis of form CO, normally within one week of the conclusion of the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Single branding

19899

This term covers both non-compete obligations and quantity forcing. A non-compete obligation is an obligation or incentive scheme in a supply or distribution agreement which causes the buyer not to manufacture, purchase, sell or resell products which compete with the contract products or to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Interim measures

12754

Conservatory measures imposed on firms by the Commission in relation to a competition case, in which a final decision on the substance has not been reached yet, in order to avoid that anti-competitive behaviour leads to irreversible damage before being sanctioned. Interim measures may be taken (...)

European Commission Glossary: Remedies (antitrust)

22425

When the Commission decides to pursue a case, it will most likely adopt one of the following two types of decision. The first is formally to find an infringement pursuant to Article 7 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 on the implementation of Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty ("Regulation 1/2003"). (...)

European Commission Glossary: State measure

3931

Law, ministerial decree, decision or other administrative act adopted by a Member State. A Member State’s omission to act may also constitute a measure. The Commission may start infringement proceedings if state measures taken in relation to public undertakings and undertakings to which Member (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Relevant market

101537

The definition of a relevant market is a tool to identify and define the boundaries of competition between firms. It allows to establish the framework within which competition policy principles are applied by the Commission. The main purpose of market definition is to identify in a systematic (...)

European Commission Glossary: Upstream market

14464

Market at the previous stage of the production/distribution chain, e.g. the production, distribution and marketing of motor vehicles would be an upstream market in relation to the sale of motor vehicles to final consumers. © European (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Bid rigging

39306

Particular form of co-ordination between firms which can adversely affect the outcome of any sale or purchasing process in which bids are submitted. For example, firms may agree their bids in advance, deciding which firm will be the lowest bidder. Alternatively, they may agree not to bid or to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Trustee (mergers)

5400

A legal or natural person appointed in merger cases to oversee the implementation of commitments and to contribute to their implementation where required. The trustee is appointed by the parties who have offered commitments the Commission with the Commission’s approval. His powers and duties are (...)

European Commission Glossary: Letter of rejection of complaints

2843

Administrative letter by which the Commission informs a complainant of its intention to reject the complaint. This letter defines the Commission’s preliminary position regarding a complaint and gives the complainant an opportunity to make further observations and comments within a specified time (...)

European Commission Glossary: Article 11 letter

3361

Written request for information the Commission addresses to undertakings and associations of undertakings, as well as to governments and competent authorities of the Member States, in order to obtain the information necessary to conduct its investigations. Such requests can be sent to companies (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Franchising

10379

A special type of agreement whereby one undertaking (the franchisor) grants to the other (the franchisee), in exchange for direct or indirect financial consideration, the right to exploit a package of industrial or intellectual property rights (franchise) for the purposes of producing and/or (...)

European Commission Glossary: Non-competition clause

24241

Contractual clause bringing about a direct or indirect obligation causing the parties to an acquisition agreement, or at least one of them, not to manufacture, purchase, sell or resell independently goods or services which compete with the contract goods or services. Such an obligation on the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Leniency

16378

General term for the total or partial reduction of fines applied to firms that co-operate with antitrust authorities in cartel investigations. The current leniency programme of the Commission is the 2006 Notice on immunity from fines and reduction of fines in cartel cases, as amended in 2015. © (...)

European Commission Glossary: Parallel imports (parallel trade)

28774

Trade in products which takes place outside the official distribution system set up by a particular firm. Through their own distribution system, firms may cause differences in prices for different countries, exploiting national differences in the behaviour of consumers. Parallel traders buy (...)

European Commission Glossary: De minimis notice

20701

Communication from the Commission clarifying under what conditions the impact of an agreement or practice on competition within the common market can in its view be considered to be non-appreciable, namely where the aggregate market share of the undertakings involved remains below certain (...)

European Commission Glossary: Comity

4571

Principle applied in the field of international co-operation on competition policy. By negative comity, every country that is party to a co-operation agreement guarantees to take account of the important interests of the other parties of the agreement when applying its own competition law. By (...)

European Commission Glossary: Exclusive distribution

36451

Distribution system, in which a company grants exclusive rights on its products or services to another company. The most common forms include single branding and/or exclusive territory rights, whereby a single distributor obtains the right to market a supplier’s product in a specific territory. (...)

European Commission Glossary: Selective distribution

54482

Distribution system whereby a supplier enters into (vertical) agreements with a limited number of selected dealers in the same geographic area. Selective distribution agreements, on the one hand, restrict the number of authorised distributors. On the other hand, they prohibit sales to (...)

European Commission Glossary: Economies of scale

8622

Economies of scale occur when firms achieve per unit cost savings by producing more of a good or service (i.e. when average costs decrease as output increases). Such effects arise when it is possible to spread fixed costs over a higher output. Examples of scale economies are the bigger lorry (...)

European Commission Glossary: Spill-over effects

15162

Side effects of an agreement or a merger between two or several firms which affect competition between them in another relevant market than the one covered by the agreement or the merger in question. Spill-over effects are referred to in Article 2(4) of the Merger Regulation, which concerns the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Public undertaking

14160

An undertaking over which the public authorities directly or indirectly exercise dominant influence by virtue of their ownership, financial participation, or the rules which govern it. A dominant influence of public authorities is in particular presumed when they: a) hold the major part of the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Undertaking (notion)

25626

For the purpose of EU antitrust law, any entity engaged in an economic activity, that is an activity consisting in offering goods or services on a given market, regardless of its legal status and the way in which it is financed, is considered an undertaking. To qualify, no intention to earn (...)

European Commission Glossary: Exhaustion

6920

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) such as patents and trademarks give the developer certain exclusive rights over the exploitation of his work, such as in production and commerce. However, within the EU, the exclusive right cannot be used to artificially split up the common market along (...)

European Commission Glossary: Block exemption (Regulation)

41976

Regulations, issued by the Commission or by the Council pursuant to Article 101(3) TFEU specifying the conditions under which certain types of agreements are exempted from the prohibition of restrictive agreements laid down in Article 101(1) TFEU. When an agreement fulfils the conditions set (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossary: Extra-territoriality

11963

Term normally used to describe the exercise by a sovereign state of jurisdiction over foreigners in respect of acts done outside the borders of that state. One could say that - in a very broad sense - the EU applies its competition rules in an extra-territorial manner when it makes use of the (...)

European Commission Glossary: Essential facility

24429

Facility or infrastructure which is necessary for reaching customers and/or enabling competitors to carry on their business. A facility is essential if its duplication is impossible or extremely difficult due to physical, geographical, legal or economic constraints. Take for example a national (...)

European Commission Glossary: Form CO

4956

Form which companies must use where a planned concentration has a Community dimension within the meaning of the Merger Regulation and therefore has to be notified to the Commission. Form CO explains in detail how notifications of concentrations must be submitted and what information and (...)

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