CRA International (London)

Cristina Caffarra

CRA International (London)
Senior Consultant

Dr Cristina Caffarra is a Senior Consultant to CRA in Europe (a team of economists based between London, Brussels, Munich and Paris). Dr Caffarra holds a PhD in Economics from Oxford University and is an expert in the application of applied theory and industrial economics to competition law, as well as the empirical analysis of markets in the context of competition investigations. She has provided economic advice to companies on landmark cases in merger control, assessment of vertical restraints, finding of dominance, evaluation of abusive conduct, and several other competition/antitrust issues including bundling, tying, rebates, price discrimination, other forms of potentially exclusionary conduct, intellectual property rights, information exchanges, collusion and the assessment of damages. She has directed and coordinated empirical and theoretical economic analyses on several of the high profile cases of the last 20 years before the European Commission (including matters involving Google, Microsoft, Apple, Amazon, Samsung, Hollywood Studios, Sky and others), the competition authorities of several member states, as well as the Courts in multiple jurisdictions. She has provided expert economic advice and testimony before the General Court in Luxembourg, the Competition Appeal Tribunal in the UK, the High Court in London, the High Court in Dublin, the Competition Appeals Tribunal in South Africa, and various other courts and arbitration in several litigated competition matters. She has particular experience in the economics of platforms and digital – including work on payment schemes for Visa, on search, Android, local search and other matters adverse to Google, as well as work for Apple, Amazon, Uber, Microsoft and multiple others. Dr Caffarra has worked for research institutions both in Italy and at Oxford. She is on the Editorial Board of the European Competition Law Journal, as well as on the Advisory Board of the Journal of European Competition Law & Practice (OUP). She lectures in competition economics as a Visiting Professor at UCL and has published articles for competition journals as well as presented papers on the economics of competition law at numerous international and academic conferences.


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58471 | Conferences


US antitrust takes big steps: How to read that in Europe?
Cristina Caffarra 28 October 2020 Webinar
Consumers' "Decision-Making Sovereignty”: Challenging Business Models in the Data Economy (after Facebook)
Cristina Caffarra 8 July 2020 Webinar


6197 Bulletin

Cristina Caffarra Google Shopping: a shot in the arm for the EC’s enforcement effort, but how much will it matter?


The judgment issued by the EU General Court (“the Court”) on 10 November 2021, dismissing Google’s appeal of the EC’s 2017 decision Google Search (Shopping) (Case AT.39740), is a milestone and a lifeline for DG Competition. Without this endorsement, the whole edifice of Art 102 enforcement (the key European unilateral conduct tool) in the digital space would have been critically undermined. The Court clarifies and even strengthens some of the reasoning in the EC decision, but more importantly it hands the EC a major political victory, appearing to vindicate its approach and record at a time when questions have been raised globally about what has really been achieved by Europe’s antitrust exertions.

Cristina Caffarra, Fiona M. Scott-Morton The EU Commission issues the proposed digital markets act aimed to complement antitrust intervention in digital markets with ex-ante regulation in the form of a set of obligations that platforms identified as “gatekeepers” should abide by


The European Commission Digital Markets Act: A translation* The European Commission has finally issued the proposed Digital Markets Act, its bid to complement antitrust intervention in digital markets with ex-ante regulation in the form of a set of obligations that platforms identified as (...)

Cristina Caffarra “Follow the Money” - Mapping issues with digital platforms into actionable theories of harm


The paper argues that antitrust tool should be seriously dialled up and can play a major role in the digital space if we are willing to evolve the economic (and legal) thinking on theories of harm in a way that – remaining consistent with key consumer welfare principles – is not just bound by the usual caution (“chilling innovation”) and the obsession with some “precedent” (“where is the tie?"). Unprecedented phenomena require unprecedented thinking.

Cristina Caffarra, Jenny Haydock, Matthew Bennett, Oliver Latham The UK Office of Fair Trading takes the view that bilateral communications of retail prices between manufacturer and retailers are problematic (Sports Bras)


When do retail price communications between retailers and manufacturers become RPM?* Introduction Commercial negotiations between manufacturers and retailers necessarily involve a discussion of wholesale prices, but they may also involve a discussion of potential retail prices, including (...)

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