Ian Forrester

General Court of the European Union (Luxembourg)

Ian Forrester QC has been appointed as the United Kingdom’s Judge at the General Court of the European Union in October 2015. He has previously acted before national courts, national competition authorities, the European General Court and the European Court of Justice or the European Commission for numerous multinational and governments. He also practices trade law, having handled numerous customs and anti-dumping cases at the administrative and appeal stages, as well as a number of WTO matters. He has served as an arbitrator in ICC and ICSID proceedings. Ian Forrester is a honorary Doctor of Laws and Honorary Professor of the University of Glasgow. He is an Advocate of the Scottish Bar, and is also admitted to the English Bar as well as the New York State Bar. He regularly lectures on European law and policy, and has written numerous articles and chapters on competition law, legal privilege, science and good regulatory practice, trade policy, customs and dumping.


Linked authors

White & Case (Brussels)
French State Council (Paris)
European Commission - DG BUDG
European University Institute (Florence)
UK Competition Appeal Tribunal (London)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Liège University
JPTT & Partners (Paris)


Ian Forrester (General Court of the EU)
Ian Forrester 14 June 2019 Paris
Ian Forrester - New Frontiers of Antitrust 2016
Ian Forrester 13 June 2016 Paris


4894 Bulletin

Assimakis Komninos, Ian Forrester, James Killick The EU Court of Justice holds that parent companies may be fined for repeated infringements even without being an addressee of the earlier decisions (Versalis)


On 5 March 2015, the European Court of Justice (CoJ) handed down its judgment in Versalis , concerning the increasing of fines for antitrust infringements where a company is found to be a repeat offender. The judgment raises important questions about the respect for the rights of defence in EU (...)

Axel P. Schulz, Ian Forrester, Jacquelyn F. MacLennan The Advocate General Wathelet proposes to the EU Court of Justice to annul a judgement of the EU General Court in order to force it to exercice its full jurisdiction to review fines imposed by the Commission (Telefónica)


The level of fines imposed by the European Commission in competition cases has attracted controversy for more than ten years. The often deferential approach of the European courts to hearing appeals has also been criticised, but in many cases the courts have largely left untouched the (...)

Assimakis Komninos, Ian Forrester, Jacquelyn F. MacLennan, Kai Struckmann, Mark D. Powell, Pontus Lindfelt The European Commission adopts a package on private damages actions in antitrust cases


Summary On 11 June 2013, the European Commission (“Commission”) adopted a proposal for a directive on how citizens and companies can bring damages claims under EU antitrust rules. According to the Commission, the proposal serves to remove a number of practical difficulties which claimants face (...)

Axel P. Schulz, Ian Forrester, Mark D. Powell The EU Court of Justice Advocate General Sharpston voices opinion on the standard of judicial review over fines in cartel cases (KME)


This article is the winner of the business category, anticompetitive practices section of the 2012 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. In an Opinion delivered on 10 February 2011, Advocate General (‘AG’) Sharpston of the European Court of (...)

13540 Review

Ian Forrester Antitrust judicial review: Highlights of EU and national case laws


The surge in demand for the application of competition law has created a need for the resolution of competition controversies; and a corresponding need for judicial review. This article provides highlights, if not a synthesis, of some 560 cases summaries which address to a greater or lesser (...)

Alexander Gee, Bruno Lasserre, Charlotte Lousberg, Ian Forrester, Nadia Calvino, Nicolas Petit, Peter Freeman Sector inquiries: Complements or substitutes for antitrust enforcement? (New Frontiers of Antitrust Conference, 15th February 2010)


Enquêtes sectorielles : Complément ou substitut de l’action des autorités de concurrence ? Introduction générale Frédéric JENNY President, OECD Competition Committee President of the International board of the Review Concurrences Professor, Co-Director of the Centre Européen de Droit et d’Economie, (...)

Assimakis Komninos, Ian Forrester Lisbonne Agenda and Competition Law


The European Commission tends to refer more and more to the Lisbon Agenda in various competition policy documents. The authors are of the opinion that such a tendancy is contrary to the objectives of the competition policy. Récemment, dans certaines de ses communications officielles en matière (...)


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