In the 2000s, introducing criminal sanctions, increasing their severity or enlarging the scope for their application were common proposals across jurisdictions to make the fight against cartels more effective. The call for “criminalization” was motivated by the opinion that the existing level and type of sanctions were insufficient to deter cartels. Profit maximizing firms and greedy managers would exploit the lenient treatment they would receive under the prevalent enforcement practice and decide to collude and harm consumers. These suggestions were followed in some jurisdictions. Although Europe has seen both decriminalization and criminalization of its competition laws, an increasing number of EU Member States have introduced criminal sanctions.