Loïc Grard

University of Bordeaux

Loïc Grard is a Professor of Public Law and Director of the European and International Research and Documentation Center (CRDEI) at the University of Bordeaux. He holds the Chair of Jean Monnet and is in charge of the Center of Excellence Jean Monnet, in the partnership with the European Documentation and Research Center of Bayonne and the Institut d’Etudes Politiques of Bordeaux. Loïc is also President of the French Association of European Studies (AFEE). He is the author of many publications in the field of the competition law, the economy law, the transport law, and the European and international law in general.

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University of Bordeaux
University of Bordeaux
University of Bordeaux


20461 Bulletin

Loïc Grard The Paris Court of Appeal holds that State aid’s control is of the EU Commission’s exclusive competence and that a plaintiff can not rely on Art. 87.1 of EC before a national authority since this article has no direct effect (National Forest Office / Germain Environnement)


The equipment and arrangement of French forests is the main activity of the French National Forest Office (Office National des Forêts, ONF), which is an industrial and commercial public establishment managing 85% of the French forests. The Germain environnement LTD which is active in the (...)

Loïc Grard The French Tribunal in charge of social security cases applies to the EU Court of Justice for a preliminary ruling on whether a tax exemption can be considered not State aid but a mere compensation of public service costs (Ferring)


The important case law of the ECJ often finds its origin in a preliminary question raised by national judges of first instance (e. g. ECJ, April 30th, 1986, Asjes a. o., Joined Cases 209/84 209/84, 210/84, 211/84, 212/84, 213/84 and 213/84, [1986] ECR 1425, “Nouvelles Frontières”, preliminary (...)

Loïc Grard The French State Council rejects the direct effect of Art. 87 EC and excludes “automatic” notification to the EU Commission of situations likely to be regarded as State aid (Association “La vache à lait qui refuse de se laisser traire”)


This judgment is less known for its contribution in State aid law than because of the title of the applicant. None of its solutions is innovative. But for a long time, the absence of direct effect of ex-Article 92 EC (now Article 87 EC) and the office of the national judge on the basis of (...)

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