Jean-Yves Chérot

University Aix-Marseille
Professor (University Aix-Marseille)

Jean-Yves Chérot is law professor at the Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille University. His areas of research and teaching include legal theory and European Union Law. In the field of competition law, he has most notably devoted his research and teaching in State Aids, service of general interest, network industries, public sector and public procurement. He is the director of the Laboratoire de théorie du droit, a research center of his University. He has published more than 50 legal papers on legal academic journal including « Actualité juridique du droit administratif », « Revue française de droit administratif », « Bulletin des contrats publics », « Europe », « Actualité de la commande publique », « Droit administratif », « Concurrences », « Revue des affaires européennes » and a leading treaty in the field of public Law and economy (Droit public économique, 2nd ed., Economica, 2007). He is member of the academic board of the Revue internationale de droit économique.

Linked authors

Paris Bar
Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton (Brussels)
University Paris II Panthéon‑Assas
BDGS Associés (Paris)
DIRECCTE
Conseil de l’Union europeenne
Deroux consultant

Articles

39058 Bulletin

Jean-Yves Chérot Three French Courts acknowledged State’s liability towards aid recipients for not having granted un-notified State aid (Kélian / Fontanille / Salmon Arc-en-ciel)

4154

These two cases are in relation to the setting of the plan Borotra (Article 99 of Law n° 96-314 of 12 April 1996 implementing various economic and financial provisions) aimed at fighting the fall of employment in the textile, clothing, leather and footwear industries. The Law permitted the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot French Administrative Courts repeatedly rules that Art. 87.1 EC does not have direct effect and tacitly considered that they do not have to raise by their own motion a potential breach of Art. 88.3 EC (14 cases)

3636

1. Introduction The present note is a comment on not less than fourteen Courts decisions in which the French administrative Courts repeatedly ruled that parties cannot, on the basis of former article 92 EC (now article 87 EC) alone, challenge the compatibility of an aid with the common market (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Judiciary Supreme Court makes a clear difference between examination of the compatibility of a State aid and control of the legality of the aid (Le Guen / Guyomarch)

3805

The claims for reimboursement of what the French statutes call “compulsory contributions”, a kind of professional taxation financing agricultural organizations, is one among most alive sources of the implementation of the State aid law in France (see also the cases relating CNIH, French (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Administrative Supreme Court rules that EC competition provisions do not prevent public institutions to act as services providers competing with private undertakings (Guiavarc’h)

3763

Gweltaz Guiavarc’h claimed that the provisions relating to the conditions in which the public universities and the public research agencies can provide research services on the market broke Community law, and in particular, State aid provisions. The French Administrative Supreme Court ruled : (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Administrative Supreme Court rules that the mere fact that an undertaking may benefit from State aid can not interfere with the regularity of a tendering procedure (Bouygues)

5957

The French administrative supreme Court had already ruled in the Société Générale case (Conseil d’État, Assemblée), 18 December 1998, Société Générale, Banque Nationale de Paris, Crédit Commercial de France v. Ministre de l’économie, des finances et de l’industrie, Case n° 197175, see George Vallindas, The (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Supreme Administrative Court welcomes actions claiming release or reimbursement of a tax financing a State aid in case of absence of notification of the statute setting up the tax (CNIH)

4301

Background It is settled case law that the implementation of the system of supervising State aid is a matter for both the Commission and, having regard to the direct effect of the last sentence of article 88 (3) EC, the national courts. The European Court of Justice ruled in two historical (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Administrative Supreme Court rules that indemnities for the services performed by undertakings in collecting and/or disposing of waste oils do not constitute State aid (Union des industries chimiques)

4071

The claimants requested the annulment of a decree creating a special tax levied on the production or importation of basic oils in France which aims was to support the collection, treatment and elimination of wasted oils. Part of this tax was allocated to undertakings collecting and disposing of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Judiciary Supreme Court rules that the claimants had not demonstrated that the tax constituted new State aid and failed to submit argument on a possible existing aid (Huttepain Maine Aliments / Guyomarc’h Vertou / Nantes Sanders / Marcel Braud)

4178

Background The French State had levied a special tax for cereal storage during the 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 campaigns. Various agricultural companies claimed the reimbursement of the tax before the national first instances courts on the basis of Article 88 (3). Some of these first instance (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot The French Administrative Supreme Court refers to the ECJ for preliminary ruling a case on tax deduction that is limited to expenditure for research carried out in the State of taxation (Baxter)

1000

Three pharmaceuticals companies engaged an action for the annulment of a State ordinance which established emergency measures aiming at the re-establishment of the balance of social security consisting in exceptional contributions to be paid by pharmaceuticals companies. One of these (...)

406452 Review

Jean-Yves Chérot Private investor test: The Court of Justice rules that the General Court did not err in law in finding that the private investor test may be applicable even where fiscal means have been employed (EDF)

423

CJEU, 5 June 2012, Commission v. EDF, Case C-124/10 P The data ---- The Commission had brought an appeal before the Court of Justice against the judgment of 5 December 2009 in which the Court of First Instance annulled Articles 3 and 4 of the Commission Decision of 16 December 2003 on State (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Preussen elektra case law: The Council of State makes a preliminary reference to the CJEU with respect to the condition of State resources relating to a compensation scheme financing renewable power generation (Association Vent de colère)

427

EC, 15 May 2012, Association Vent de colère, n° 324852 The Conseil d’État has decided to refer a preliminary question to the Court of Justice of the European Union on the interpretation of the concepts of State aid and State resources in relation to the mechanism of the purchase obligation imposed (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Compensation of service of general economic interest: The European Commission renders the first application of the Alumnia framework for State aid in the form of public service compensation (Post Office)

167

Eur. comm. dec. of 28 March 2012, Post Office Limited - Offsetting of net costs incurred to ensure a commercially uneconomic network aff. SA.33054 (2012N) First and interesting application of the framework applicable to State aid in the form of public service compensation resulting from the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Distortion of competition – Imputability: The General Court annuls a Commission decision as far as this decision undermines the exemption from excise duty authorised by the Council and undermines the presumption of legality attaching to European Union measures (Ireland a.o./Commission)

211

Trib. EU, 21 March 2012, Ireland and others v Commission, cases T-50/06 RENV, T-56/06 RENV, T-60/06 RENV, T-62/06 RENV and T-69/06 RENV. Facts and procedure ---- The European Commission has opened State aid proceedings against Ireland, Italy and France for exemptions from excise duties on (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery: The Court of Justice issues a judgment that illustrate a refusal to comply, for the wrong reasons, with a decision ordering the recovery of aid illegally granted (France)

233

CJEU, 20 October 2010, Commission v. France, Case C-549/09 This case is a further illustration of the prevarication of a Member State in the performance of its obligations to recover incompatible and unlawfully paid aid as a defence which a Member State in question knows full well is not (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery: The Court of Justice imposes a penalty the amount of which changes over time in proportion to the progress of the implementation of the Commission’s decision (Italy)

278

CJEU, 17 November 2011, Commission v. Italy, Case C-496/09 An action for failure to fulfil obligations The case before the Court shows once again how difficult it is for States to recover incompatible and unlawfully granted aid when it comes to implementing a Commission decision on a general (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Selectivity – Direct taxation: The Court of Justice, grand chamber, gives the Commission the means to better fight against unfair tax competition on the basis of State aid rules (Commission and Spain/Government of Gibraltar and United Kingdom)

411

CJEU, 15 November 2011, Commission and Spain v. Government of Gibraltar and United Kingdom, cases C-106/09 P and C-107/09 P. The issue of selectivity of State aid in the context of the fight against harmful tax competition ---- This is an important judgment on the concept of selectivity of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery: The Court of Justice examines the particular case of the extent of the obligation to justify a recovery order in a decision on a general aid scheme (A2A/Commission ; ACEA/Commission)

240

CJEU, 21 December 2011, A2A v Commission, Case C-318/09 P CJEU, 21 December 2011, ACEA v Commission, Case C-319/09 P CJEU, 21 December 2011, A2A v Commission, Case C-320/09 P Appeals against the judgments of the Court of First Instance of 11 June 2009 (obs. J.-Y. C. Concurrences No. 2009-3, (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Contribution to the public electricity service: The Council of State states that the contribution to the public electricity service is not an integral part of a State aid (Stop Hôtel Villeneuve d’Ascq)

389

EC, 9 November 2011, Stop Hôtel Villeneuve d’Ascq, n° 323273 Final consumers of electricity installed on the national territory participate, as a contribution to the national public electricity service, in the financing of the additional production costs borne by electricity operators in areas (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Altmark case law: The Marseille Administrative Court of Appeal rules that a safeguard clause reserving the right to grant the delegate of public services additional funding, other than that required to carry out the public services obligations, to an amount that is not determined and whose calculation parameters were not defined, constitutes a State aid (Corsica Ferries)

390

CAA Marseille, 7 November 2011, Corsica Ferries, n° 08MA01604 Corsica Ferries, a competitor of SNCM and CNM for the transport of passengers between Corsica and the mainland, asked the administrative court to annul the maritime public service delegation agreement for which SNCM and CNM were (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Restructuring aid: The General Court holds that the European Commission has committed manifest errors in the assessment of the compensatory measures concerning the restructuring of a firm in difficulty and in the application of the Deggendorf case law (Electrolux et Whirlpool/Commission)

216

Trib. EU, 14 February 2012, Electrolux and Whirlpool v Commission, Joined Cases T-115/09 and T-116/09 The Court of First Instance annuls for manifest errors of assessment the decision by which the Commission declared compatible with the internal market the aid which the French State planned to (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot SGEI: The European Commission approves a State aid to the French incumbent postal operator to finance part of the cost of the public services of delivering press items to citizens and of presence in remote areas (La Poste)

207

Eur. Comm., dec. C(2012) 152 final, 25 January 2012, public service compensation measures for La Poste - France, case SA.34027 In this interesting decision, the Commission decides not to initiate the formal investigation procedure and to declare compatible with the internal market on the basis (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Loan: The General Court rules that the margins to be applied to set the reference of the interests exigible by undertakings depend on the rating of the undertaking set by the 2008 Commision’s notice (Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais)

475

Trib. UE, 12 May 2011, Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Others v Commission, Joined Cases T-267/08 and T-279/08 The decision of the Court of First Instance of 12 May 2011, Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Communauté d’agglomération du Douaisis v. Commission (Cases T-267/08 and T-279/08) is certainly not (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery: The Court of Justice rules that apprehension of internal difficulties in the course of implementing a decision on State aid cannot justify a failure by a Member State to comply with its obligations under Community law (Poland)

433

CJEU, 14 April 2011, Commission v. Poland, Case C-331/09 The argumentation in cases brought before the Court on State failure to fulfil its obligations is extremely constrained. The defending State cannot invoke the possible unlawfulness of a Union act and here of the Commission’s decision. In (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Economic activity – Construction of airport infrastructure: The General Court rules that regional airport operators have to subsidize by their own resources the costs of the infrastructures which are the basis of their economic activity (Mitteldeutsche Flughafen, Flughafen Leipzig-Halle)

4221

Trib. UE, 24 March 2011, Freistaat Sachsen and Land Sachsen-Anhalt v Commission, Case T-443/08, Mitteldeutsche Flughafen and Flughafen Leipzig-Halle v Commission, Case T-455/08 The question of financing airport infrastructure brought before the Court of Justice for the first time The question (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Tax on the sale and renting of videos: Several French Administrative Courts of Appeal rule that a tax paid following a Commission Decision declaring such tax to be compatible must not have been granted in breach of Article 108(3) TFEU (Christophe A ; Spar Vidéo ; Le Temps retrouvé ; GPM Italie Tolbiac ; Yvannof Emmanuel - Club vidéo Jade)

461

CAA Bordeaux, March 29, 2011, Christophe A, n° 10BX00976 CAA Nancy, April 14, 2011, Spar Video, No. 10NC00178 CAA Lyon, 9 June 2011, Le Temps retrouvé, n° 10LY01772 CAA Paris, November 24, 2010, GPM Italy Tolbiac, n° 10PA00079 and CAA Nantes, 30 December 2010, Yvannof Emmanuel - Club vidéo (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot 362 Warranties - Recovery: The General Court rules that the obligation to recover an illegal State aid is not affected by the fact that the domestic law of a Member State treats measures granting the aid as null and void (DHL Aviation and DHL Hub Leipzig)

808

Trib. EU, 7 October 2010, DHL Aviation and DHL Hub Leipzig v Commission, Case T-452/08 In 2005, after negotiations with several airports, DHL decided to move its European air freight hub from Brussels to Leipzig/Halle, starting in 2008. On this occasion, DHL received several state aid (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Qualification requirements for State aid: The General Court holds that payments on account prior to the approval of an agreement were paid without respecting the Altmark case law conditions (Fallimento Traghetti del Mediterraneo)

1405

CJEU, 10 June 2010, Fallimento Traghetti del Mediterraneo, case C-140/09 The case in the main proceedings is already known because it gave rise to a first question referred by the Tribunale di Genova for a preliminary ruling by which the Court was asked whether the Italian law limiting the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Governmental statements: The General Court holds that governmental statements cannot involved State ressources on account of their open, imprecise and conditional nature, in particular as regards the nature, scope and conditions of possible State intervention (France Télécom)

1120

General Court, 21 May 2010, France, France Télécom a.o. v. Commission, joined cases T-425/04, T-444/04, T-450/04 and T-456/04 Public statements, attributable to a State, by which a government announces support for an undertaking, in particular a public undertaking, and which may have the effect (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Annulment for illegality: The General court holds that, if the annulment of the assessments were to lead, even provisionally, to a repayment of the aid previously reimbursed by its recipients, this would be incompatible with the effectiveness of the Commission’s decision ordering the recovery of the unlawful aid (Scott and Kimberly Clark)

1275

CJUE, May 20, 2010, Scott and Kimberly Clark v. City of Orléans, Case C-210/09 Article 14(1) of Regulation 659/1999 provides that ’where negative decisions are taken in cases of unlawful aid, the Commission shall decide that the Member State concerned shall take all necessary measures to recover (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Violation of art. 88(3) EC: The Council of State decides that the violation of art. 88(3) EC does not create a serious breach to a public interest to justify the intervention of a judicial emergency proceeding (Air France ; Airport of Marseille-Provence)

1357

EC (ord. ref.), 19 March 2010, Air France and others. (Marseille-Provence airport), No 336405 The administrative court has been seised on numerous occasions of the Marseille-Provence airport’s fee-charging policy designed to make the new terminal dedicated to low-cost airlines attractive to (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot First application of EC Reg. 1370/2007: The European Commission issues the first application of EC Reg. 1370/2007 on public passenger transport services by rail and by road (Danske Statsbaner)

2009

Eur. Comm., dec. C(2010) 975 final, 24 February 2010, Public service contracts between the Danish Government and Dankse Statbaner, case C 41/2008 (ex. NN 35/2008) The Commission had opened a formal investigation procedure on complaints from two passenger transport companies about alleged aid (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Tax allocated to the State budget: The Nantes Administrative Appeal Court holds that a tax allocated to the State budget can not be an integral part of a State aid measure (Dijori)

1630

CAA Nantes, December 28, 2009, SAS Dijori, n° 08NT00890 It will be recalled that in the Auchan judgment (EC 21 December 2006, req n° 288562, ConcurrencesNo. 1-2007, p. 128, obs. J-Y. C.), the Council of State had ruled that the tax on certain advertising expenditure introduced by Article 23 of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Exercise of public powers: The CFI rules that the circumstances that a State uses financial ressources that are connected with the exercise of public powers do not justify to regard the State measures as actions connected with the exercise of public powers (EDF)

2324

General Court, 12 December 2009, EDF v. Commission, case T-156/04 The assessment under the State aid rules of the policy of clarifying the status of the assets of EDF’s general supply network and its accounting and tax consequences provides an opportunity for the Court of First Instance to (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Success of its crisis State aid coordination: The European Commission notes the progress of its State aid policy in its implementation by the Member States and the success of its State aid crisis coordination (State Aid Scoreboard)

1819

Eur. Comm, 7 December 2009, State Aid Scoreboard, Autumn 2008 Update, COM(2009) 661 The State Aid Scoreboard is a document that complements information on State aid rules and policies with data to monitor their correct application and progress. The autumn 2009 update focuses on the year 2008 (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Concept of State aid: The ECJ rules that the concept of State aid corresponds to an objective situation and that is why the EC Commission is not required to state the its reasons for making a different assessment of the regime in question in its previous decisions (Ireland)

1853

CJ (EU), ch. gde, 2 December 2009, Commission v. Ireland and Others, Case C-89/08P. From this decision handed down by the Grand Chamber, we will remember in particular (see on other pointsAgnès Maîtrepierre’s commentary in the "Proceedings" column, this review ConcurrencesN° 1-2010) that the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Aid to disadvantaged and disabled workers: The European Commission publishes criteria for the compatibility of State aid to disadvantage and disabled workers subject to individual notification

1832

Communication from the Commission. Criteria for the compatibility analysis of state aid to disadvantaged and disabled workers subject to individual notification, OJ C188 of 11 August 2009, p. 6. The Communication on criteria for the analysis of the compatibility of State aid for the employment (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Tax on meat purchases : The French Council of State rules on the connexion between the financing tax and the aid measure (Boucherie du marché ; Montaudis)

2656

CE, 27 July 2009, Société Boucherie du marché, n° 31 2098 CE, 27 July 2009, Société Montaudis, n° 3 13502 The levy on meat purchases and then the slaughter levy were the subject of extensive litigation before the administrative court. This tax litigation goes through three periods. From the tax (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Rules of admissibility: The ECJ rules that a trade union may have the right to appeal against a decision of the Commission not to raise objections about a State aid (3 F)

2116

ECJ, 9 July 2009, 3F, aff. C-3 19/07 The judgment delivered by the Third Chamber of the Court in this case will attract the attention of those examining the case law, which is still difficult, still containing grey areas and still criticised for its complexity, on the admissibility of the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery - Mechanism for extinguishing debts: The ECJ rules that, so long as it is provided for under the national legal system as a mechanism for extinguishing debts, a set-off operation can constitute an appropriate means by which State aid may be recovered (Greece)

1799

ECJ, 7 July 2009, Commission v. Greece, Case C-3 69/07. That judgment, delivered by the Grand Chamber, in Case C-47/99, on the interpretation and application of the rules on State aid, provides elements of substantial interest in the interpretation and application of the rules on State aid. (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Art. 86.2 EC: The CFI clarifies the assessment of State aid not linked to a mission of general interest but constituting a certain form of organisation of public services (ASM Brescia - ACEA - AEM)

2211

CFI, 11 June 2009, ACEA v Commission, Case T-297/02 CFI, 11 June 2009, AEM v Commission, Case T-301/02 CFI, 11 June 2009, ASM Brescia v Commission, Case T-189/03 CFI, 11 June 2009, Italy v Commission, Case T-222/04 Those four decisions of the Court of First Instance concern the action for (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Public funding of broadband network: The European Commission consults Member States on the Broadband Guidelines on the application of EU State aid rules to public funding of broadband network

2077

EC. Comm, 19 May 2009, Consultation on the Commission’s Broadband Guidelines on the application of EU state aid rules to public funding of broadband network The Commission opened a consultation on draft Guidelines on the application of state aid rules to the rapid deployment of broadband (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Economic assessment of State aid: The European Commission consults Member States on a staff working paper "Common principles for an economic assessment of the compatibility of State aid under Article 87.3 EC”

2744

EC Commission, 15 May 2009, Consultation on a working document "Common principles for the economic assessment of the compatibility of State aid under Article 87(3)". In a consultation document, DG Competition attempts to develop in a more concrete, comprehensive and precise manner the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Selectivity: The ECJ rules that the Member State’s freedom to define their environmental policy does not exclude the application of State aid rule to an environmental levy (British Aggregates Association)

2943

ECJ, 22 December 2008, British Aggregates Association v Commission, Case C-487/06P. Here the Court makes an interesting ruling on the selectivity of an aid scheme in the rather particular case of a "specific" measure such as an environmental tax. The United Kingdom has introduced a tax (Virgin (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Regional selectivity: The CFI rules that a measure conferring an advantage in only one part of the national territory is not selective on that ground alone for the purposes of Art. 87.1 EC (Gibraltar/Great Britain)

2925

CFI, 18 December 2008, Government of Gibraltar and United Kingdom v Commission, cases T-211/04 and T-215/04. The Government of Gibraltar is planning to introduce a deeply original corporate tax regime. This system, which was intended to be applicable to all companies established in Gibraltar, (...)

Agnès Maitrepierre, Alain Ménéménis, Amandine Zelenko, Anne Fort, Carine Soulay, Christian Lambert, Christopher Bellamy QC, David Spector, Denys de Bechillon, Emmanuel Glaser, Eric Ginter, François Tanguy, Guylain Clamour, Jacques Biancarelli, Jacques Derenne, Jean-Christophe Moraud, Jean-Claude Bonichot, Jean-Louis Colson, Jean-Marc Sauvé, Jean-Yves Chérot, Laurent Richer, Marie-Christine Lepetit, Marie-Dominique Hagelsteen, Mario Monti, Philippe Martin, Pierre-François Racine State Aid Colloquium, 14 March 2008

10135

TABLE OF CONTENTS OPENING REMARKS Mr Jean-Marc SAUVÉ, Vice-President of the Conseil d’Etat Mr Mario MONTI, Former European Commissioner for Competition, President of the Bocconi University of Milan IS STATE AID CONTROL POLICY A COMPETITION POLICY? Introduction: Mrs Marie-Dominique (...)

Jacques Derenne, Jean-Yves Chérot Challengeable act: The ECJ holds that the administrative filing of a complaint relating to an alleged unlawful aid constitutes an act likely to be challenged under Article 230 EC and annuls an order of the CFI which declared inadmissible a request for the annulment of a complaint rejection (Athinaïki Techniki)

3448

ECJ, 17 July 2008, Athinaïki Techniki AE v Commission, Case C-521/06 P. This judgment of the Court of Justice deserves attention because it differs so much from the position adopted by the Court of First Instance in opening up the admissibility of the actions of complainants whose complaints (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Public guarantees: The European Commission publishes a new Notice on the State Aid Action Plan in efforts to clarify and simplify State aid rules (Treaty to State aid in the form of guarantees)

3471

EC. Comm, 25 May 2008, Notice on the application of Articles 87 and 88 of the EC Treaty to State aid in the form of guarantees, OJ C155, 20 June 2008, p.10. The important revised Commission Communication on the application of Articles 87 and 88 of the EC Treaty to State aid in the form of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Access to official documents: The ECJ rules that a Member State cannot oppose, in an entirely discretionary manner and without having to give reasons for its decision, the disclosure of any document held by a Community institution simply because it originates from that State (Sweden)

3861

ECJ, 18 December 2007, Kingdom of Sweden v Commission, Case C-64/05 P The Court of Justice delivered this very important decision in Grand Chamber on appeal against the judgment of 30 November 2004 (Case T-168/02 [2004] ECR II-4135) in which the Court of First Instance dismissed IFAW’s (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Existing aid: The CFI raises by its own motion the Commission’s obligation to state reasons on the existing character of a State aid due to particular circumstances (Ireland, France, Italy)

3749

CFI, 12 December 2007, Ireland, France, Italy a.o. v. Commission, cases T-50/06 a.o. The case is very interesting because it involves linking the system of state aid decisions under the procedures laid down in the Treaty with decisions that the Union institutions may take under other powers, (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery of State aid: The ECJ over rules arguments about the absolute impossibility of implementation and about the illegality of the Commission’s decision (Italy)

3476

ECJ, 6 December 2007, Commission v. Italy, Case C-280/05. The judgment of 6 December 2007 in Case C-280/05 contains the Court’s usual reminders of the failure of a State, in this case Italy, to take the necessary measures within the prescribed time limits to abolish and recover from the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Link between the financing tax and the aid measure: The Administrative Paris Court of Appeal holds that French tax on meat purchases has not yet any connection with the subsidization of aid to the quartering sector (Boucherie Brodet, SAS Vitry)

4208

CAA Paris, 1 October 2007, Boucherie Brodet, n° 06PA03997 CAA Paris, 5 November 2007, SAS Vitry, n° 06PA04277 The aid in the rendering sector and the levy on meat purchases which for a time financed these aid measures gave rise to numerous proceedings before the national courts (mainly for (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Duty of the Commission: The CFI rules that mistaken approach taken in the implementation of a State aid measure does not create additional obligations for the Commission (Brandt Italia)

3610

CFI, 12 September 2007, Italy and Brandt Italia SpA v. Commission, joined cases T-239/04 and T-323/04 By a Decree-Law of 14 February 2003 laying down urgent provisions on employment, converted into a Law of 17 April 2003, Italy adopted an aid scheme in response to the serious employment crisis (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Expiry of the ECSC Treaty: The CFI rules that the European Commission may, even after expiration of the ECSC Treaty, review State aid in the coal and steel sector in respect of situations existing prior to the expiry of that Treaty (Gonzalez y Diez)

4316

CFI, 12 September 2007, Gonzalez y Diez v. Commission, Case T-25/04. The Gonzalez y Diez judgment is of particular interest because it states, in the name of ’the unity and continuity of the Community legal order and its objectives’ and, in particular in the present case, the unity and (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Existing aid/New aid: The CFI completes the examination of the EC decision to initiate procedure under Art. 88.2 against Italian maritime transport’s State aid as new aid (Tirrenia di Navigazione)

3737

CFI, 20 June 2007, Tirrenia di Navigazione, Case T-246/99. The judgment comes in the action for annulment brought by undertakings (companies in the Tirrenia Group) providing maritime transport between the mainland and Sardinia under contracts with the State involving commitments relating to (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Procedural obligations of the Commission: The CFI quashes the European Commission Commission’s decision for numerous procedural, method and calculation errors in the valuation of a land sale price (Scott)

4020

CFI, 29 March 2007, Scott SA v Commission, Case T-366/00 Almost ten years after it was granted in 1987, on the basis of a complaint lodged in 1996, itself based on a 1996 report by the French Court of Auditors, the Commission initiated proceedings against France for aid allegedly contained in (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Assessment of the value of an aid: The CFI voids for a violation of the obligation of motivation an European Commission decision which assessed the value of a State aid by way of capitalization (Département du Loiret)

4141

CFI, 29 March 2007, Département du Loiret v Commission, Case T-369/00 The Commission’s decision of 12 July 2000 concerning the State aid implemented by France for Scott Paper SA was the subject of, in addition to the action for annulment brought by the recipient undertaking against Article 2 of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot EU Law - Vol. II

4934

This is the second volume of a work on the law of the European Union which opened with a volume devoted to the legal order and institutional law of the Union (The Law of the European Union. A New Constitutional Order. Materials and cases, by Alain A. Levasseur and Richard F. Scott, 2001, 1075 (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Tax: The French Council of State rules that a tax entirely attributed to a fund is an integral part of an aid measure and has to be restituted since it has been put into effect in violation of Art. 88.3 EC (Auchan)

4617

EC, 21 December 2006, Minister for the Economy, Finance and Industry v. Auchan France, No. 288562 The Conseil d’État was seized of a dispute concerning the refund of the tax on certain advertising expenditure instituted by the 1998 Finance Act and allocated entirely to the fund for the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Access to documents: The CFI interprets for the first time the right of access to documents in the State aid control procedure (Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau)

4246

CFI, 14 December 2006, Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH v Commission, Case T-237/02 In control procedures under the State aid rules, interested undertakings, whether aid recipients or competitors, and in general all interested parties other than the Member State directly concerned by the aid, (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Reasonable period: The CFI holds that the mere adoption of a decision after the expiry of a reasonable period is not in itself sufficient to render unlawful a decision taken by the European Commission following a preliminary examination under Art. 88.3 EC (Empresarios de Estaciones de Servicio)

5592

CFI, 12 December 2006, Asociación de Empresarios de Estaciones de Servicio de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid a.o. v. Commission, Case T-95/03 By its decision of 12 December 2006 in Case T-95/03, the Court of First Instance adjudicated for the first time in State aid proceedings (see, however, (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Power of national Courts: The ECJ holds that a Commission decision finding aid compatible does not have the effect of regularising ex post facto implementing measures which were invalid because they were taken in violation of the prohibition laid down by the last sentence of Article 88(3) EC (Transalpine Ölleitung in Österreich Gmbh (TAL))

4248

ECJ, 5 October 2006, Transalpine Ölleitung in Österreich Gmbh (TAL) and Others v Finanzlandesdirektion für Tirol and Others, Case C-368/04. By its TAL judgment of 5 October 2006, the Court is led to confirm two well-established case-law decisions. However, the judgment does not lack interest in (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Suspensory effect: The ECJ holds that by providing for the suspensory effect of actions brought against demands for payment issued for the recovery of aid granted, the procedure laid down by French law and applied in the present case cannot be considered to allow the "immediate and effective" execution of the Commission decision (Commission v. France)

4920

ECJ, 5 October 2006, Commission v. France, Case C-232/05. Under the principle of the primacy of Community law, national courts (like the administrative authorities themselves) must leave national rules contrary to Community law unapplied. Thus, the Court has been able to require national (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot State imputability: The French Council of State, by reference to the Pearle doctrine, decides that compulsory levies allowing interprofessional agricultural market policies do not belong to the State aid rules (Confédération paysanne)

5084

EC, 21 June 2006, Confédération paysanne, No. 271450 With explicit reference to the judgment of the Court of Justice of 15 July 2004 (ECJ, Pearle and others, Case C-345/02, ECR p. 7139; see comment A.), the Court of Justice of the European Communities (ECJ, Pearle and others, Case C-345/02, ECR (...)

Antoine Gosset-Grainville, Denis Samuel Lajeunesse, François Souty, Frédéric Jenny, Guillaume Cerutti, Hubert Legal, Jacques Barrot, Jacques Derenne, Jacques-Philippe Gunther, Jean-Patrice de La Laurencie, Jean-Yves Chérot, Laurence Idot, Marc van Hoof, Marie-Dominique Hagelsteen, Nicolas Pesaresi, Valérie Rabassa, Xavier de Roux Conference: The EC State Aid Reform (Paris, 8 December 2005)

18537

Les actes de ce colloque reprennent l’organisation en deux temps des travaux. Dans un premier temps, sont étudiés les deux grands axes de la réforme: Sur le plan substantiel, l’objectif de la réforme communautaire est d’introduire également en cette matière une analyse plus économique des aides. Après (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Art. 88.3 EC: The Council of State confirms the scope of the mission of national courts for the enforcement of State aid rules (Ryanair)

5441

Le Conseil d’État rappelle l’étendue de la compétence et l’importance du rôle des juridictions nationales dans l’application du droit des aides d’État en complément de la mission de la Commission européenne et contrôle la qualification comme aide d’État de la mesure par laquelle une chambre de commerce, (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Legitimate expectations - Legal certainty: The ECJ implements separately the protection of legitimate expectations and legal certainty principles (G. Atzeni - Marco Scalas)

8237

La Cour de justice des CE procède à une analyse pédagogique des bases juridiques de l’intervention de la Commission concernant les aides d’État dans le secteur agricole en présentant la méthodologie d’application des différents règlements pertinents et fait une application séparée du principe de la (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Application at local level: The French Prime Minister adopts a circular setting for the procedure to be followed at the local level (Circular 26 Jan. 2006)

4000

Le Premier ministre adopte une circulaire précisant les règles communautaires sur les aides d’État et la procédure à suivre au niveau local Circular of 26 January 2006 relating to the application at local level of the Community competition rules relating to public aid to companies, JORF n° 26 of 31 (...)

Jacques Derenne, Jean-Yves Chérot Art. 88.3 EC: The Administrative Court of Appeal of Paris holds the State accountable for granting an un-notified aid (Salmon Arc en Ciel)

5549

Deuxième application en France par la Cour d’appel de Paris de la reconnaissance de la responsabilité de l’État à l’égard du bénéficiaire de l’aide d’État qui lui a été octroyée en violation des dispositions de l’article 88, paragraphe 3, CE CAA Paris, January 23, 2006, Groupe Salmon Arc en Ciel, n° (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Selectivity - Economic entity: The ECJ holds that an economic activity can be both the fact of an operator acting directly on the market and of another entity (Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze)

5889

Selon la Cour de justice des CE, il n’est pas exclu qu’une activité économique soit le fait d’un opérateur direct sur le marché et, indirectement, d’une autre entité contrôlant cet opérateur dans le cadre d’une unité économique qu’ils forment ensemble ECJ, 10 January 2006, Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze and (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Action for annulment: The CFI holds that publication in the Official Journal of a summary of the EC Decision which enables third party to identify the decision and has access to the full text triggers the time-limit period (Air Bourbon)

4051

La simple publication au JOUE d’un cartouche relatif à une décision de la Commission qui permet aux tiers d’identifier la décision concernée et d’avoir accès par Internet au texte intégral dans la langue faisant foi, suffit à faire courir le délai de recours contre la décision CFI (ord.), 19 September (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot New State Aid - De minimis: The ECJ holds that the European Council has no jurisdiction under Art. 87.3 e) to exempt a Member State to notify new State aid and that the "de minimis" does not apply in order to assess the effect on trade between Member States (Xunta de Galicia)

4305

La Cour rappelle que le Conseil n’a pas le pouvoir, sur le fondement de l’article 87, paragraphe 3, sous e) CE, de dispenser les États de l’obligation de notification des aides nouvelles telle que prévue par le traité CE - La Cour rappelle que la règle “de minimis” ne s’applique pas pour apprécier si (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot EC Action plan: The European Commission revises the Guidelines on State aid for Environmental Protection (Draft Project on National Regional Aid)

3962

Révision de l’encadrement communautaire des aides d’État pour la protection de l’environnement ; Projet de lignes directrices sur les aides d’État à finalité régionale EC Commission, July 2005, Draft Guidelines on national regional aid EC Commission, August 2005, Revision of the Community guidelines on (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Control mechanism: The ECJ holds that the European Commission can, provided it has sufficient information, issue either a conditional decision or a negative one, at its discretion (Sardinia)

4696

Procédure de contrôle: Il revient à la Commission, dans le cadre de son large pouvoir d’appréciation, d’évaluer, dans la mesure où les informations en sa possession le lui permettent, s’il est approprié d’adopter une décision conditionnelle ou une décision négative CFI, 15 June 2005, Regione autonoma (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery: The ECJ holds that a debt-free transfer of assets to a new company is an obstacle to executing a Commission decision requiring the recovery of State aid (Commission/Greece)

5404

Récupération des aides: Un transfert des actifs, libre de toute dette, à une nouvelle société constitue une entrave à l’exécution d’une décision de la Commission ordonnant la récupération d’aide ECJ, 12 May 2005, Commission v. Greece, Case C-415/03. The judgment of the Court was delivered on an action (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Existing Aid/New Aid: The ECJ lays down the duties incumbent on the Commission whenever it opens a formal investigation under Article 88(2) EC if the Member State concerned alleges either that the measures in question do not constitute State aid (Italy/Commisson)

4564

Aide existante: La Cour précise les obligations de la Commission lorsqu’elle ouvre la procédure formelle d’examen de l’art. 88.2 lorsque l’État membre concerné allègue soit que les mesures ne sont pas des aides, soit que les mesures ne sont pas des aides nouvelles mais des aides existantes ECJ, 10 May (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Annulation: The CFI annuls the "Livret bleu" decision for insufficient reasoning and expresses its regret that the clarification given in the Altmark case was not available to the Commission (Crédit Mutuel)

4327

Le Tribunal annule la décision du “Livret bleu’’ pour insuffisance de motivation ... et regrette que la Commission n’ait pas pu bénéficier des clarifications apportées par la Cour dans Altmark CFI, 18 January 2005, Confédération nationale du Crédit mutuel v. Commission, Case T-93/02 In its decision of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Grant: The CFI holds that analyzing the effect that a grant will have on competition requires the European Commission to take into account whether or not the market in question is in decline (Kronofrance)

5071

L’analyse des effets sur la concurrence d’une aide impose que la Commission prenne en considération le fait que le marché en cause est ou non en déclin. L’absence de surcapacité dans le secteur concerné par l’aide ne peut suffire, sur la base de l’encadrement multisectoriel des aides en faveur de grands (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Principle of one-off aid: The European Commission states that the principle of one-off aid does not apply absolutely and should not limit the cases where aid can be deemed "necessary" (Bull)

4386

Le principe de l’aide unique ne saurait être appliqué de manière absolue et limiter les cas où la Commission peut reconnaître qu’une aide est nécessaire EC Commission, dec. 2005/941/EC, 1 December 2004, on the State aid which France is planning to implement for Bull The Commission’s decision on the (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Principle of legitimate expectations: The CFI holds that a business cannot rely on the principle of legitimate expectations during the formal investigation procedure in order to resist the immediate application of a new regulation on State aid with regard to aid previously notified under a former regime (Ferriere Nord)

5018

Le principe de la confiance légitime ne peut être invoqué par une entreprise pendant la phase d’examen d’une aide pour s’opposer à l’application immédiate en cours de procédure d’une nouvelle réglementation en matière d’aide CFI, 18 November 2004, Ferriere Nord SpA v. Commission, Case T-176/01 The Court (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Eligibility - Environmental State aid: The CFI holds that in order to be eligible for environmental State aid, a project must have the improvement of environmental performance as its objective, and not merely a collateral benefit (Ferriere Nord)

4322

CFI, 18 November 2004, Ferriere Nord SpA v. Commission, Case T-176/01 The judgment of the Court of First Instance of 18 November 2004 in the Ferriere case contains an interesting clarification concerning the investment costs which may be the subject of aid authorised by the Commission for (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Guidelines: The CFI holds that the European Commission reserves its right to determine the existence of a SME, in spite of previous guidelines on the subject (Pollmeier Malchow)

4181

Interprétation de la recommandation 96/280 de la Commission du 3 avril 1996 concernant la définition des PME - Pouvoir d’appréciation de la Commission : la recommandation concernant la définition des PME n’a pas fait perdre à la Commission son pouvoir d’appréciation pour apprécier, sous réserve du (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Notion of State Aid (advantage): The European Commission holds that declarations by national authorities in favour of a public undertaking which are sufficiently clear, precise and definite, and which evidence the existence of credible State involvement, may turn a shareholder advance into State aid (France Telecom)

4792

Des déclarations d’autorités nationales en faveur d’une entreprise publique suffisamment claires, précises et fermes manifestant l’existence un engagement crédible de l’État sont susceptibles d’être prises en considération pour qualifier une avance d’actionnaire d’aide d’Etat The Commission’s decision of (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Reimbursement of the Aid: The CFI holds that the general principles of law do not allow a beneficiary to reserve itself a particular role in proceedings (Technische Glaswerke)

4542

Les principes généraux du droit ne sauraient permettre de réserver un rôle particulier au bénéficiaire d’une aide CFI, 8 July 2004, Technishe Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH v. Commission, Case T-198/01 The Commission had decided that the waiver by the BvS, the body responsible for restructuring and selling (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery of unlawful State Aid: The CFI holds that the amount of aid repayable corresponds to the amount of the debt renounced, and not to the loss which would have been incurred had the company been put into liquidation (Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau)

4169

Le montant de l’aide à rembourser correspond au montant du renoncement à la créance et non à la perte qui aurait été subie si l’entreprise avait été mise en liquidation CFI, 8 July 2004, Technishe Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH v Commission, Case T-198/01 In that case the Court rejects the argument that, in (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Powers of the Council vs. Commission: The ECJ holds that once the European Commission has ruled definitively on a State aid grant, the Council is unable to make a ruling on it itself (Commission c./Conseil)

5240

Le Conseil est incompétent pour statuer sur une aide après que la Commission ait statué définitivement sur cette mesure ECJ, 29 June 2004, Commission v. Council, case C-110/02 The Council had authorised, at the request of Portugal, aid to farmers to fully compensate them for reimbursements they (...)

Jean-Yves Chérot Recovery of unlawful State aid: The ECJ holds that a company which has been granted unlawful State aid and continues to carry on the subsidised activities and which has maintained its legal personality gains a competitive advantage with regard to that aid and must repay an amount equal to the grants (Germany/Commission)

5187

L’entreprise à laquelle des aides d’État illégales ont été octroyées qui continue à effectuer pour elle-même les activités subventionnées et qui a gardé sa personnalité juridique conserve l’avantage concurrentiel lié auxdites aides et est obligée de rembourser un montant égal à celui des aides ECJ, 29 April (...)

Send a message