François Lévêque

Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Deloitte (Paris)
Professor of economics (Ecole des mines)

François Lévêque is professor of law and economics at the Ecole des mines de Paris and visiting professor at the University of California at Berkeley. His research, teaching and consulting interests are in the areas of environmental policy, antitrust, intellectual property rights and regulation in network industries. Graduated in engineering from Agro, he started his academic activity with a PhD thesis in economics (1982) on forest property rights and their consequences on the industrial organization of pulp-and-paper sector. His research on forest economics terminated in 1989 with the publication of a reference textbook in French. Then he begun to work on the protection of intellectual property rights, in particular with respect to patent extension for biotechnology inventions and to the reduction of biodiversity - a topic he addressed in a book in 1993. Since this date his research has progressively enlarged to the study of environmental policies, regulatory reforms, and competition law. He published in 1996 at Edward Elgar a seminal book on the setting process of European environmental laws, and a series of books at Kluwer Academic Publisher on environmental agreements (1999). He wrote a French textbook for undergraduate students in economics of regulation at La Découverte (1998). He edited a collective book on merger remedies in EU and US competition law (Edward Elgar, 2002) and another one on Transport Pricing of electricity Networks (Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2003). He is the co-author of the first textbook in Economic Analysis of Intellectual Property (La Découverte, 2003 ; Berkeley Electronic Press, 2004). During the past twelve years his research has focused on the assessement of policy instruments (e.g., tariffs in electricity transmission, access charges for railways, secondary market of airport slots, ecotaxes, co-venants, etc.) and of policy reforms (e.g., gas and electricity French and EU laws, EU directives related to the opening-up of competition in railways and airways markets, European Commission proposals for Communitary patent and software protection). He taught economics of natural resources at the Ecole des mines de Paris (1984-1990), environmental economics at EHESS (1997-2001) and at Pavia University (1999-2002). He created in 1999 a new major in law and economics at the Ecole des mines. He has taught industrial economics at the Ecole des mines since 1996. He has also taught EU Competition Law at the Boalt School of Law, University of California at Berkeley, since 2002.His consulting activity is aligned with his academic interests. He has been regularly commissioned by the French government, OECD and the European Commission to undertake consultancy and participate to advisory committees. François Lévêque has also founded Microeconomix, a Paris-based boutique specialised in economic analysis of legal disputes.

Linked authors

Deloitte (Paris)
Deloitte (Paris)


52526 Review

Bruno Lasserre, François Lévêque, Françoise Benhamou, Frédéric Jenny, Gildas de Muizon, Harry First, Mario Siragusa, Olivier Fréget, Thibaud Simphal Disruptive innovation, law and competition (Paris, 29 January 2016)


Innovation today is shifting the established positions of a growing number of companies and industries. There is no shortage of qualifiers to underline the power of this phenomenon: drastic innovation, destabilising innovation, disruptive innovation, radical innovation, disruptive innovation. (...)

Adrien de Hauteclocque, Dorte Fouquet, François Lévêque, Jean-Michel Glachant, Leigh Hancher, Marcelo Saguan, Patrick Thieffry, Sébastien Douguet, Vincent Rious Nouvelles interactions et tensions entre la politique énergétique européenne et l’approche de la Commission en matière d’aides d’État


The growing number of challenges on energy policy that the European Union faces call for a review and an update of the current mechanisms implemented for market integration and energetic transition. A new paradigm regarding the utilisation of State aid by EU member States to serve national and (...)

Christophe Lemaire, David Spector, François Lévêque, Michaël Cousin, Philippe de Ladoucette, Simon Genevaz NOME act I : A legislative framework for the opening of the French electricity market


The law establishing a New Organisation for the Electricty Market provides for a temporary regulation which aims at removing the obstacles to the development of competition on the French electricity market. Its purpose is in particular to solve the margin squeeze resulting from the difference (...)

François Lévêque The efficiency of leniency programs


1. The first European leniency programme introduced in 1996 was a great success. In five and a half years, 16 cartels have been defeated and more than 80 companies have sought leniency. Only three of them obtained a total reduction of fines. The new leniency policy that came into force in (...)

François Lévêque Exchange of information: The John Deere case law under review


What do an English tractor, a Parisian palace and mobile telephony have in common? For several years, the suppliers of these goods and services have exchanged information on their sales figures and have been condemned as such by the competition authorities. For the latter, the communication of (...)

François Lévêque How efficient is the EC Merger Regime ?


The European Commission recently issued an in-depth study on merger remedies. The study conducted an ex post evaluation of the design and implementation of 96 remedies accepted in merger cases notified between 1996 and 2000. At first glance, remedies seem very effective since 94 % of divested (...)

François Lévêque Statistical Analysis of the EC Merger Regime


The paper surveys econometric studies on EU merger control. It explains how to interpret the statistics they deliver on the influence of structural and political variables on merger decisions made by the European Commission. An emphasis is given on the use of econometrics based on so-called (...)

François Lévêque Energy: Market power in the electricity market


The European Commission has recently opened a sector inquiry into the internal electricity market. Due to continued high concentration and sharply increasing prices, the Commission is concerned that competition could be distorted. The conclusions of the inquiry will not be known for more than a (...)

François Lévêque Is merger control more stringent in the EU or in the US ?


Is the European Commission more interventionist or more stringent than the US antitrust authorities? As far as merger control is concerned, the spontaneous answer would be to say yes. The European decision in 2001 on the acquisition of Honeywell by General Electric is still in our minds. The (...)

François Lévêque Is Online Music Locked in by Leveraging?


Vertical integration is usually beneficial for consumers. However, it may also raises anticompetitive effects. Therefore, the economic assessment requires an accurate balance between pro and anticompetitive effects. The paper provides an overview of the economic theory of vertical effects. It (...)

François Lévêque What is the reasonnable price for a compulsory licence?


Contrary to the calculation of cost for access to infrastructures, there is no generally accepted robust method to determine the price of a patent (or copyright) licence made compulsory because it is an essential facility or in case of abuse of dominant position. Through an economic analysis (...)

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