Glossary of competition terms

This Glossary is based on definitions from DG COMP’s Glossary of terms used in EU competition policy (© European Union, 2002) and the OECD’s Glossary of industrial organisation economics and competition law (© OECD, 1993). Each term is enriched with references of national case laws from the e-Competitions Bulletin and Concurrences Review.

Notion of control

Control over enterprises is generally viewed to be exercised when an individual or group of investors hold more than 50 per cent of the common voting stock of the enterprise or firm. However, "effective control" may be exercised when the investor(s) holds a large block of voting stock even when it is less than 50 per cent but the remaining shares are widely held by many smaller investors. Control of enterprises may also be exercised through interlocking directorates and inter-corporate ownership links between firms as in the case of conglomerates.