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Home > Glossary of competition terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W


A
Absolute territorial protection  |  Abuse of a dominant position  |  Access to the Commission’s file  |  Active sales  |  Actual competitor  |  Advisory Committee  |  AKZO Procedure  |  Ancillary restraints  |  Antitrust  |  Article 11 letter  | 

B
Bid rigging  |  Black cause  |  Block exemption (regulation)  |  Buyer power  | 

C
Cartel  |  Collecting society  |  Collusion  |  Comity  |  Commission Notice  |  Commitments (or remedies)  |  Competition  |  Complaint  |  Compliance programme  |  Concentration  |  Concerted Practice  |  Conditions  |  Consortium  | 

D
De minimis notice  |  Delegation of powers  |  Divestiture  |  Dominant position  |  Downstream market  |  Duopoly  | 

E
Economies of scale  |  Economies of scope  |  EEA  |  Effect on trade between Member States  |  Effects doctrine  |  Enabling regulation  |  English clause  |  Entry barriers  |  ESA  |  Essential facility  |  Exclusionary practice  |  Exclusive distribution  |  Exhaustion  |  Extra-territoriality  | 

F
Failing firm defence  |  Fine  |  Fixed costs  |  Foreclosure  |  Form CO  |  Franchising  |  Free riding  | 

G
Guidelines  | 

H
Hard core restrictions  |  Hearing  |  Hearing officer  |  Herfindahl-Hirschmann-Index (HHI)  |  Horizontal agreement  | 

I
Implementing regulation  |  Infringement proceeding  |  Intellectual property right (IPR)  |  Inter-brand competition  |  Interim measures  |  International Co-operation  |  International Competition Network (ICN)  |  Intra-brand competition  | 

J
Joint control  |  Joint venture  | 

K
Know-how  | 

L
Leniency (programme)  |  Letter of formal notice  |  Letter of rejection of complaints  | 

M
Marginal costs  |  Market power  |  Market share  |  Merger control procedure  |  Monopoly  | 

N
Negative clearance  |  Network effect  |  Non-compete obligation  |  Non-competition clause  |  Notification  |  Nullity  | 

O
Obligations  |  Oligopoly  | 

P
Parallel trade (parallel imports)  |  Passive sales  |  Periodic penalty payment  |  Potential competition  |  Potential competitor  |  Predatory pricing  |  Public undertaking  | 

R
R&D agreement  |  Relevant market  |  Remedies  |  Resale price maintenance (RPM)  |  Rescue merger  |  Retailer  | 

S
Selective distribution  |  Services of general economic interest  |  Single branding  |  Specialisation agreement  |  Spill-over effects  |  Start-up costs  |  State measure  |  Statement of objections (SO)  |  Substitutability  |  Sunk costs  | 

T
Take or pay contracts  |  Trustee  |  Turnover threshold  |  Tying or tied selling  | 

U
Unbundling  |  Undertaking  |  Upstream market  | 

V
Variable costs  |  Vertical agreement  | 

W
White clause  |  Wholesaler  |  Withdrawal (of the benefit of a block exemption)

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Glossary

This Glossary was prepared by DG COMP and serves as an orientation for non specialists in competition matters. It has no legal value whatsoever and does not bind the Commission in any way (European Union, 2003). You will find below each article references of national case laws from the e-Competitions Bulletin.