Glossary of competition terms

This Glossary was prepared by DG COMP and the OECD for non-competition specialists. Each term is enriched with references of national case laws from the e-Competitions Bulletin. (© European Union - © OECD)

Restriction on Exportation

Restrictions placed on the ability of firms to export. Such restrictions may come from governments, normally to protect or conserve non-renewable resources or cultural treasures. They may also come from agreements among firms to limit exports as part of a cartel arrangement. These restrictions may also arise from agreements negotiated by the importing country such as the case of "voluntary" export restrictions (VER’s) of Japanese automobiles to the United States. Finally export restrictions may be part of licensing arrangements whereby the firm granted the license is not allowed to export the good in competition with other licensees, or the firm selling the license.

See also Export Cartel.