Mergers in Big Tech

Mergers

The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation concerning a merger in the market of music recognition for smartphones, tablets and PCs (Apple / Shazam)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into Apple’s proposed acquisition of Shazam* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Shazam by Apple under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the merger could (...)

The EU Commission decides to review a merger in the market of music recognition applications for smartphones (Apple / Shazam)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission to assess the acquisition of Shazam by Apple* The European Commission has accepted a request from Austria, France, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Spain and Sweden to assess under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of Shazam by Apple. The Commission considers the (...)

The Russian Competition Authority clears the creation of a joint undertaking subject to remedies in the taxi market (Yandex / Uber)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
FAS cleared merger between Yandex.Taxi and Uber, subject to conditions* On November 24, 2017 FAS agreed on the application of the Yandex N.V., Uber International C.V. for conclusion of an agreement on the creation of joint enterprise, subject to conditions. The results of analysis of the (...)

The EU Commission fines a social network company for providing misleading information during the merger investigation (Facebook / WhatsApp)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission fines Facebook €110 million for providing misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has fined Facebook €110 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger Regulation of (...)

The EU Commission fines a company for providing incorrect or misleading information during its investigation on a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
On May 18, 2017, the European Commission (the “Commission”) fined Facebook €110 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during its 2014 investigation of its acquisition of WhatsApp The magnitude of the fine dwarfs the few penalties the Commission has imposed in the past for (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger on the e-book online platform market (Rakuten / Tolino)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt clears acquisition of "tolino" e-book platform by Rakuten* The Bundeskartellamt has cleared the acquisition by the Japanese online retailer Rakuten Inc. of the assets for the technical operation of the "tolino" e-book platform. The seller of the assets is Deutsche Telekom AG, (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a social network suspected of having transmitted misleading informations concerning a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission alleges Facebook provided misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Facebook alleging the company provided incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger (...)

The EU Commission clears acquisition of leading global professional social networking platform company by leading global software company, subject to 5-year remedies that include monitoring and prevention of tying (Microsoft / LinkedIn)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission
Microsoft/LinkedIn: Big data and conglomerate effects in tech markets* In a nutshell: The Microsoft/LinkedIn case is an important development in the Commission’s assessment of mergers involving data-related issues in tech industries. It provides further guidance on the framework for the (...)

The EU Commission clears a merger, subject to remedies, on the professional social networks market (LinkedIn / Microsoft)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission approves acquisition of LinkedIn by Microsoft, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of LinkedIn by Microsoft. The decision is conditional on compliance with a series of commitments aimed at (...)

The EU Commission invites third party comments on proposed acquisition in information technology sector (Microsoft / Linkedin)
Fieldfisher (London)
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Fieldfisher (London)
Microsoft/LinkedIn: could Big Data be a Big Problem?*On 14 October 2016, Microsoft’s $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn was notified to the European Commission for merger clearance. The EU regulator’s initial deadline to decide whether to approve the deal or refer it for in-depth (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority unconditionally clears an acquisition in the market for data memory systems (Western Digital / SanDisk)
University of Sussex
This case note analyses the decision of the Turkish Competition Authority (TCA) in which it has unconditionally cleared in Phase I the acquisition of the sole control of SanDisk by Western Digital in the market for data memory systems. The Operation On 4 December 2015, the TCA received a (...)

The Competition Commission of Singapore clears a merger in the hard drive sector in a phase I review (Western Digital / SanDisk)
Allen & Gledhill (Singapore)
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Allen & Gledhill (Singapore)
On 19 January 2016, the Competition Commission of Singapore (“CCS”) cleared the proposed acquisition (the “Proposed Transaction”) by Western Digital Corporation (“WDC”) of SanDisk Corporation (“SanDisk”) (collectively, “the Parties”). The Parties received the decision from CCS within the 30 working days (...)

The German Competition Authority publishes a discussion paper on internet platforms in merger control, contractual restrictions of competition and abuse of dominance scenarios
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
The FCO publishes discussion paper on internet platform markets* On October 1, 2015, the FCO published a paper entitled “Digital economy – internet platforms between competition law, privacy and consumer protection” on the occasion of a conference of the working group competition law (consisting (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM fines several undertakings for breaches of merger notification rules (FJEI / FPID / Nanjing Puzhen / Bombardier Sweden / BestTv / Microsoft)
AnJie Law (Beijing)
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AnJie Law (Beijing)
Warning from MOFCOM: Second Wave of Penalties Imposed for Breaches of Concentration Notification Rules* On September 29th 2015, the Ministry of Commerce of the P.R.C (“MOFCOM”) published four administrative decisions on penalties for illegal activities involved in the concentration of (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM cracks down on failures to notify qualifying mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures (Fujian / Shenzhen CHINO-E - Microsoft / BesTV - Bombardier / CSR Nanjing Puzhen - Suzhou Erye / Shanghai Fosun)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
China’s Anti-Monopoly Law requires businesses to notify transactions to the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) for merger control review, so long as the parties meet certain revenue thresholds and the transaction involves a change of control or the establishment of a joint venture . Despite these (...)

The EU Commission clears a merger beetwen two mobile network equipment manufacturers (Nokia / Alcatel-Lucent)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Commission approves Nokia´s acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent* The European Commission has approved under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent by Nokia. Both companies are global providers of telecommunications equipment and related services. The Commission concluded (...)

The Indian Competition Authority approves a joint venture between a global consumer healthcare conglomerate and a global technology conglomerate (JJDC Johnson and Johnson Innovation / Ethicon / Google)
Vaish Associates, Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI approves the joint venture between Google and Johnson and Johnson for the research and development in respect of the robotic system for surgical intervention* CCI by its order dated July 10, 2015 approved the proposed combination for creation of a JV between Google and Johnson and Johnson (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM publishes penalty decisions regarding merger control for the first time (Unigroup / RDA Microelectronics; Western Digital / Hitachi)
AnJie Law (Beijing)
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AnJie Law (Beijing)
MOFCOM Steps Up: Penalty Decisions Regarding Merger Control Published for the First Time* Two months after the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) published its last high-profile anti-monopoly penalty decisions (e.g.Japanese Auto Parts and Bearing Manufacturers case, Audi and (...)

The EU Commission unconditionally clears an acquisition in the social media sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Clifford Chance (Madrid)
Background information On 3 October 2014 the European Commission ("Commission") unconditionally clears in first phase the €14 billion acquisition of WhatsApp by Facebook (the “Transaction”). The Transaction was already conditionally authorized in April 2014 by the US Federal Trade Commission (...)

The EU Commission unconditionally approves in first phase an acquisition in the digital sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
European Commission
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"What’s Up with Merger Control in the Digital Sector? Lessons from the Facebook/WhatsApp EU merger case"* The Facebook/WhatsApp decision provides an insight into how the Commission tackles novel issues in the application of merger control rules to the digital sector, in particular to free (...)

The EU Commission approves without commitments an acquisition in the recent information technology sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Squire Patton Boggs (Brussels)
EU Commission approves Facebook’s acquisition of WhatsApp* On 3 October 2014, the European Commission of the European Union (the “Commission”) approved the acquisition without any commitments. After the approval of the acquisition of Skype by Microsoft in 2011 and of the acquisition of Nokia by (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears a merger in the smartphone market (Microsoft / Nokia)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
On April 8, MOFCOM approved Microsoft’s acquisition of Nokia’s mobile handset business. MOFCOM’s review focused on three product markets: smartphones, mobile operating systems, and the licensing of standard-essential and non-essential patents for smartphones. Geographically, MOFCOM focused on (...)

The EU General Court confirms that the merged parties are not dominant in the internet visual communications market and rejects interoperability issues raised by appellants (Microsoft / Skype)
Ashurst (Milan)
EU Court upholds the Commission’s decision on the Microsoft/Skype deal* On 11 December 2013 the EU’s General Court (the “Court”) handed down its ruling concerning Microsoft’s acquisition of Skype. The Court held that the Commission rightly considered that the transaction does not restrict (...)

The EU General Court rejects rival’s claim and gives the green signal for an acquisition in the communications services market (Microsoft / Skype)
Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co (New Delhi)
By its decision dated 11 December 2013, Luxembourg based European General Court approves the acquisition of Skype by Microsoft. Background On 02.09.2011 the EU Commission was notified of a proposed concentration by which, Microsoft Corporation, USA acquired 100% of the outstanding shares and (...)

The US FTC requires divestiture of production and intellectual property assets before clearing an acquisition in the market for desktop hard drives (Western Digital / Hitachi GST)
Sheppard Mullin (New York)
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WilmerHale (Washington)
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US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (Washington DC)
On May 8, 2012, Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”) completed its acquisition of Viviti Technologies (formerly, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Ltd., or, “Hitachi GST”) for approximately $4.8 billion, after the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) approved a consent order requiring (...)

The Competition Commission of India rules on anomaly of asset acquisitions under Indian merger control (Intel / Motorola - Magma / Religare - NHK / BBTCL - AICA / BBTCL)
Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas (Mumbai)
This article analyses the treatment of asset acquisitions under India’s merger control regime in light of certain specific precedents set by the Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) in its assessment of merger notifications to date. Under the Competition Act, 2002 (“Act”), acquisitions of (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears an off-shore joint venture involving European computer technology groups (ARM / Giesecke & Devrient / Gemalto)
First Principles Economics (London)
On the 6th December 2012 MOFCOM published its 6th and last merger decision of the year - a clearance, with conditions, of the Trustonic joint venture between ARM, Giesecke & Devrient (G&D), and Gemalto. Process The parties submitted their initial notification on 4th May 2012. MOFCOM (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM clears conditionally an international JV in the IT sector (ARM / Giesecke & Devrient / Gemalto)
King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
MOFCOM cleared Joint Venture between ARM, Giesecke & Devrient and Gemalto with Conditions* On December 6th, 2012, the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM“) cleared the proposed establishment of a joint venture (“JV“) by ARM Holdings plc (“ARM“), a UK semiconductor intellectual property (“IP“) (...)

The UK OFT decides not to refer an anticipated acquisition in the social networking industry to the Competition Commission (Facebook / Instagram)
Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
In May 2012 the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) opened a merger investigation into the acquisition by Facebook Inc (Facebook) of Instagram Inc (Instagram). This was the first time a merger involving Facebook, the global colossus in the social networking industry, publicly came under the scrutiny (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM approves an acquisition subject to conditions in the IT industry (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
On 19 May 2012, the PRC Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") approved the acquisition by Google Inc. of Motorola Mobility, Inc. under the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law ("AML"), but imposed conditions to require that Google continue to license the Android operating system and the patents acquired from (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM approves acquisition subject to what some observers believe were over-cautious conditions linked to a lack of experience and institutional resources (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Sheppard Mullin (Beijing)
China’s MOFCOM Grapples With Open Source Issues In Google-Motorola Deal* This past February the US Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and European Commission (“Commission”) cleared Google Inc.’s acquisition of Motorola Mobility Holdings Inc. without any conditions. In contrast, on May 19, 2012 the (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears an acquisition in the smartphone and smartphone operating system sectors (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Institute of American Studies (Beijing)
China’s Ministry of Commerce Conditionally Clears the Google/Motorola Mobility Deal* On 19 May 2012, China’s Ministry of Commerce (‘MOFCOM’) announced its conditional clearance decision on the acquisition of Motorola Mobility by Google, which removed the last hurdle for the USD12.5 billion (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM again uniquely imposes AML conditions on a transaction in the smartphone sector (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Ingram Yuzek Gainen Carroll & Bertolotti (New York)
The notification for Google‘s acquisition of Motorola Mobility was submitted to China’s Ministry of Commerce on 30 September 2011. It was ultimately accepted on 21 November 2011 by MOFCOM after supplementation. At the expiration of the Phase III, or extended Phase II, period, on 19 May 2012, (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM clears an acquisition in the desktop hard drive disks market but imposes both structural and behavioral remedies (Western Digital / Hitachi)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Hong Kong)
Companies contemplating global mergers,acquisitions and joint ventures should be aware that the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), China’s antitrust agency tasked with merger control, is increasingly imposing competition remedies exceeding those required by the European Commission, U.S. Federal (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM clears acquisition in the hard disk drive business (Western Digital / Hitachi)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Shanghai)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Shanghai)
Recently China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) approved Western Digital’s proposed acquisition of Hitachi’s hard disk drive business on a conditional basis. Containing the most comprehensive clearance conditions ever imposed by MOFCOM, this decision mirrors previous guidance issued by the (...)

The EU Commission clears the acquisition of a smartphone and tablet manufacturer’s patent pool by a leading smartphone operating system developer (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Womerang (Monterrey)
“Honor your commitments” - The patent gatekeeping problem after antitrust regulators in the United States and the European Union cleared Google’s acquisition of Motorola’s patent pool* On February 13, 2012, the Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division (the Division) announced its decision to (...)

The US DoJ clears acquisition involving standards-essential patents relevant to wireless devices (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. DOJ clears Google’s acquisition of Motorola Mobility and other transactions involving standards-essential patents* On 13 February 2012 the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) announced the closing of investigations concerning the acquisition of Motorola Mobility Holdings Inc. (“Motorola (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority unconditionally clears the acquisition of the hard disk drive business of a leading IT company (Seagate/Samsung)
Erdem & Erdem (Istanbul)
The Competition Board (the “Board”) has unconditionally authorized the acquisition of the control over the Hard Disk Drive (“HDD”) of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (“Samsung”) by Seagate Electonics PLC (“Seagate”; “Samsung” and “Seagate” hereinafter referred to as the “Parties”) by concluding that, even (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally approves the acquisition of the HDD business of a Korean electronics company by a US competitor (Seagate / Samsung)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Hong Kong)
Companies contemplating global mergers,acquisitions and joint ventures should be aware that the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), China’s antitrust agency tasked with merger control, is increasingly imposing competition remedies exceeding those required by the European Commission, U.S. Federal (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally approves a merger between two leading hard drive disks manufacturers (Seagate / Samsung)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) has approved Seagate’s acquisition of the hard drive disk division of Samsung Electronics ("Samsung HDD") under China’s Anti-Monopoly Law ("AML"), but imposed conditions to ensure that Samsung, although controlled by Seagate, remains an independent competitor. (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally approves merger between hard disk drive (HDD) companies (Samsung / Seagate)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) has approved Seagate’s acquisition of the hard drive disk division of Samsung Electronics ("Samsung HDD") under China’s Anti-Monopoly Law ("AML"), but imposed conditions to ensure that Samsung, although controlled by Seagate, remains an independent competitor. (...)

The US DoJ closes its investigation and gives green light to $400 M acquisition in the advertising display industry (Google / Admeld)
Sidley Austin (Brussels)
DOJ closes investigation into Google’s acquisition of Admeld Inc.* On December 2, 2011 the DOJ announced its decision to close the investigation into Google’s acquisition of Admeld Inc. allowing Google to complete its $ 400 million merger. The DOJ’s investigation focused on the potential (...)

The EU Commission decides not to oppose the notified operation and declares it compatible with the internal market and the EEA Agreement (Microsoft / Skype)
Liege Competition and Innovation Institute
Microsoft/Skype – or the Commission in the Shadow of Parties Submission* The Commission’s decision in Microsoft/Skype contradicts its previous Article 102 decisions in Microsoft I (WMP) and Microsoft II (Internet Explorer). Read §152 of Microsoft/Skype : “consumers do not simply use whatever (...)

The US DoJ requires conduct remedies before allowing a vertical merger between a popular generic online search engine and a widely-used flight information services provider (Google / ITA)
Economists Incorporated (San Francisco)
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Economists Incorporated (Washington)
On July 1, 2010, Google Inc. (“Google”) and ITA Software, Inc. (“ITA”) announced an agreement for Google to acquire ITA for $700 million. On April 8, 2011, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) announced that it would allow the proposed acquisition subject to certain conditions. DOJ filed a complaint (...)

The US DOJ demands conduct remedies from two strong competitors in related markets before approving a vertical merger that will allow the combined company to enter into the online travel search market (Google / ITA)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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United Airlines (Chicago)
U.S. antitrust agencies, in a flurry of recent actions, have reinvigorated vertical merger enforcement, claiming competitive harm from what, in the past, would potentially have been viewed as efficiency-enhancing vertical integration. The Department of Justice (“DOJ”), in particular, has (...)

The US DoJ imposes conduct remedies, including "FRAND" licensing, before approving a vertical merger with anticompetitive concerns in the comparative-flight-search industry (Google / ITA)
Robins Kaplan (Minneapolis)
According to conventional wisdom, the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission prefer structural merger remedies like divestiture over remedies that require ongoing monitoring of post-merger conduct. Structural remedies offer comparative ease of implementation and require (...)

The US DoJ requires conduct remedies before allowing a vertical merger between a popular generic online search engine and a widely-used flight information services provider (Google / ITA)
Robins Kaplan (Minneapolis)
According to conventional wisdom, the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission prefer structural merger remedies like divestiture over remedies that require ongoing monitoring of post-merger conduct. Structural remedies offer comparative ease of implementation and require (...)

The German Competition Authority clears the establishment of a joint venture in the software sector (CPTN / Novell)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 20 April 2011, the German Competition Authority (“Bundeskartellamt”) cleared the establishment of a joint venture by Apple, EMC, Microsoft and Oracle, CPTN, the purpose of which is to acquire hundreds of software patents from Novell. The venture has also recently won US regulatory approval. (...)

The US DOJ clears an acquisition subject to conditions in the IT industry (Google / ITA)
Jones Day (Houston)
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Jones Day (Sillicon Valley)
The U.S. Department of Justice has announced that, to allow Google’s proposed acquisition of ITA Software, DOJ and the parties have agreed to a set of requirements that will govern Google’s future operation of the ITA business. This action is notable as another challenge to a vertical merger and (...)

The US DoJ allows acquisition of the leading airfare pricing provider by the largest Internet search provider with settlement reflecting antitrust enforcement trends (Google / ITA)
Jones Day (Houston)
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Jones Day (Sillicon Valley)
On October 5, 2011, following a public comment period, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its final judgment approving the requirements Google and ITA Software have agreed to in order to address the U.S. Department of Justice’s alleged anticompetitive concerns stemming (...)

The EU Commission conditionally approves the proposed acquisition of an IT security company by the world leading CPU manufacturer (Intel / McAfee)
J G Associates (Brussels)
Merger: main developments between 1 January and 30 April 2011* Also on 26 January 2011, the European Commission approved the proposed acquisition of McAfee, a vendor of information technology security, by Intel, both of the US. The approval is conditional on a set of commitments ensuring fair (...)

The EU Commission approves a merger between two US software companies subject to a set of commitments ensuring fair competition in the sector of computer security (Intel / McAfee)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
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European External Action Service
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Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (Copenhagen)
Intel/McAfee* Introduction On 26 January 2011 the European Commission approved the proposed acquisition of McAfee by Intel, both of the US. The approval is conditional upon a set of commitments ensuring fair competition in the sector of computer security. Computer security is a growing (...)

The EU Commission clears subject to conditions an acquisition on the market for video communication systems via internet (Cisco / Tandberg)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission clears Cisco’s acquisition of Tandberg, subject to conditions* On 29 March 2010, the European Commission approved the proposed acquisition of Norway’s Tandberg, a vendor of video communications systems, by Cisco Systems subject to conditions. On the same day, just one hour (...)

The EU Commission clears in phase I a merger in video communications industries accepting complex remedies proposed by merging parties (Cisco / Tandberg)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
T-Mobile/Orange and Cisco/Tandberg: Commission accepts complex Phase I remedies* When the Commission’s Remedies Notice was published in 2008, many commentators thought the Notice’s requirements for parties to a concentration to offer an acceptable remedy were too demanding. The concern was that (...)

The EU Commission clears, subject to divestment, the acquisition of a vendor of videoconferencing products with dual headquarters in Norway and in the US (Cisco / Tandberg)
J G Associates (Brussels)
"Merger: main developments between 1 January and 30 April 2010" On 29 March the Commission approved under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of Tandberg, a vendor of videoconferencing products with dual headquarters in Norway and in the US, by Cisco of the US. The approval is (...)

The EU Commission clears merger in the internet search and search advertising services markets (Microsoft / Yahoo)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission
"Economic background of the Microsoft/Yahoo! Case"* I. Introduction This paper offers an economic background for the analysis conducted by the Commission during the recent M.5727 Microsoft/Yahoo! transaction and complements the article ‘The Microsoft/Yahoo! Search business case’ published in (...)

The EU Commission clears in phase I a merger in the internet search market addressing the concept of concentration and conducting a detailed two-sided market analysis (Microsoft / Yahoo!)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
Microsoft/Yahoo! – the concept of a concentration* The Commission’s recent decision approving Microsoft’s acquisition of Yahoo!’s Search Business (including internet search and search advertising) contains an interesting application of the definition of a concentration under the Merger Regulation. (...)

The EU Commission unconditionally clears merger between two US software undertakings (Oracle / Sun Microsystems)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission
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European Commission - DG MOVE
Oracle/Sun Microsystems: The challenge of reviewing a merger involving open source software* I. Introduction On 21 January 2010 the Commission unconditionally cleared the planned takeover of Sun Microsystems (‘Sun‘), a software and hardware vendor, by Oracle Corporation (‘Oracle‘), one of the (...)

The EU Commission clears in Phase II a merger in computer programming activities sector conducting the economic analysis based on a dynamic theory of harm (Oracle / Sun Microsystems)
RBB Economics (Brussels)
A few thoughts on Oracle’s Sun takeover and Widenius appeal* On Friday 2nd July, Monty Widenius, founder of open source database company MySQL, owned by Sun, filed an appeal against the European Commission’s unconditional clearance of the merger between Oracle and Sun Microsystems. The main (...)

The EU Commission approves the acquisition of US hardware and software vendor by a US software company (Oracle / Sun Microsystems)
J G Associates (Brussels)
"Merger: main developments between 1 January and 30 April 2010" The Commission approved, on 20 January, the proposed acquisition of US hardware and software vendor Sun Microsystems Inc. by Oracle Corporation, a US enterprise software company. After an in-depth examination the Commission (...)

The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation into the planned acquisition on the market for databases (Oracle / Sun Microsystems)
Ashurst (Milan)
Commission’s in-depth investigation into Sun Microsystems takeover by Oracle* On 3 September 2009, the European Commission opened an in-depth investigation into the planned acquisition of U.S. hardware and software vendor Sun Microsystems by Oracle Corporation, a U.S. database and application (...)

The EU Commission clears an acquisition in the online advertising market (Google / DoubleClick)
J G Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers: main developments between 1 January and 30 April 2008"* On 11 March the Commission decided to clear the proposed acquisition of the online advertising technology company DoubleClick by Google, both based in the US. Google operates an internet search engine that offers search (...)

The EU Commission clears merger in the online advertising market applying for the first time the non horizontal merger guidelines (Google / DoubleClick)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission - DG CNECT (Brussels)
"Google/DoubleClick: The first test for the Commission’s nonhorizontal merger guidelines"* I. Introduction The Google/DoubleClickmerger generated considerable interest as it concerned the ubiquitous search engine that most Europeans use in their daily lives. From a competition policy (...)

The US DoJ settles gun-jumping charges against communication technology companies (Qualcomm / Flarion)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Palo Alto)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
On April 13, 2006, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) announced that it had reached a $1.8 million settlement with Qualcomm Incorporated and Flarion Technologies, Inc. to resolve allegations that they each violated the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act of 1976 (“HSR Act”) by “jumping the gun” in connection with (...)

The EU Commission acknowledges the withdrawal of a proposed joint acquisition in the digital rights management (DRM) industry (Microsoft/Time Warner/Contentguard)
J G Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers — Main developments between 1 January to 30 April 2005"* Microsoft and Time Warner had notified the Commission of their intention to acquire joint control of Contentguard. Contentguard is one of the main Digital Rights Management (DRM) patent-holders. The Commission launched an (...)

The EU Commission approves a merger between competitors in software applications for businesses (Oracle / PeopleSoft)
J G Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Merger control: Main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2004"* The Commission approved Oracle Corp’s acquisition of PeopleSoft Inc. The two companies are rival makers of software applications for businesses. After a detailed investigation, the Commission concluded that there was (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California rules that the second-largest software company can proceed with its proposed bid despite DoJ’s legal challenge (Oracle / Peoplesoft)
Shearman & Sterling
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Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
On September 9, 2004, a federal judge ruled that Oracle, the nation’s second-largest software company, could proceed with its hostile bid for PeopleSoft, handing the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) a significant defeat in a legal challenge to a corporate merger. DOJ had sought to block Oracle’s (...)

The EU Commission opens full investigation into the proposed acquisition of a British broadband cable company (Microsoft, Liberty Media/Telewest)
European External Action Service (Brussels)
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Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) (London)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Merger Control: main developments between 1st May 2000 and 31st August 2000"* Microsoft notified an operation in February whereby it would have acquired joint control over Telewest, a British broadband cable company, with Liberty Media, a subsidiary of AT&T Corp. The Commission started an (...)

The European Commission fines a Korean electronic equipment manufacturer for failing to notify a merger (Samsung / AST)
European Commission - DG TRADE
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers Recent important decisions" On 18 February 1998 the Commission announced that it had fined the Korean company Samsung ECU 33,000 for failing to notify a concentration to the Commission in good time and for putting into effect the concentration without the Commission’s authorisation. (...)

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