This chapter provides an overview of the practice of the European Commission (“EC”) and European national competition authorities (“NCAs”) as regards unilateral conduct in the energy sector . It is based mainly on cases reported in e-Competitions (abbreviated here to “e-C”). There are more than 120 cases covered, including national court judgments and investigations, which were started, settled or did not result in a decision.
 The approach that we have taken is to look at the way that the NCAs and national courts have been applying Article (“Art.”) 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) , or its national equivalents since Regulation 1/2003 , alongside the EC’s recent enforcement. To this end, we have organised the material in 17 sections.
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