Buyer power in agreements and abuse of market power

Anticompetitive practices

The Turkish Competition Authority finds no evidence on exclusionary practices by incumbents against a new entrant in the market for meal cards (Metropal)
University of Sussex
This case note analyses the decision of the Turkish Competition Authority (TCA) in which it has rejected the complaint due to lack of evidence that the incumbent undertakings in the market for meal cards collectively resorted to certain exclusionary practices upon the entry into market of the (...)

The Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court upholds the decision of the Bundeskartellamt prohibiting the application of the "best price clause" in the online hotel booking sector (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
HRS’s ‘best price’ clauses violate German and European competition law - Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirms Bundeskartellamt’s prohibition decision* Today the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court rejected HRS’s appeal against the Bundeskartellamt’s decision of 20 December 2013. In its decision the (...)

The Italian Competition Authority closes by a commitment decision an Article 101 TFEU investigation against a purchase supercentre set up by many supermarket chains (Centrale italiana)
Desogus Law Office (Cagliari)
In the Case I768 Purchase Supercentre1 the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) has closed by a commitment decision an Article 101 TFEU investigation against Centrale Italiana (CI), a purchase supercentre set up by many supermarket chains. The ICA believed that the CI activities might restrain (...)

The Italian Competition Authority closes with commitments the investigation into a collective buying group and five large retail chains ordering the winding-up of the buying group (Centrale Italiana)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
With its decisions of 17 September 2014 the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA” or the “Authority”) closed with a commitment decision an investigation into the collective buying group Centrale Italiana S.c.a.r.l. (“Centrale Italiana”) and five competing large retail chains which are members of it (...)

The US FTC approves petition to modify an order imposing restrictions on the ability to enter into certain conditional supply relationships, since the competition among purchasers and sellers of toys has been reshaped following the emergence of online retailers and the growth of two other purchasers (Toys “R” Us)
Ashurst (Milan)
U.S. FTC modifies 1998 order against Toys “R” Us based on market changes brought about by e-commerce* On 15 April 2014 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission approved a petition submitted by Toys “R” Us (“TRU”) to reopen and modify an order issued in 1998, which required TRU to refrain from certain (...)

The German Competition Authority issues a press release concerning its decision to prohibit the hotel booking portal from continuing to apply its “best price” clause (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
Ashurst (Milan)
German Federal Cartel Office bans use of MFN clauses by HRS and opens new proceedings against Booking.com and Expedia* On 20 December 2013, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) issued a press release concerning its decision to prohibit the hotel booking portal HRS from continuing to apply its (...)

The German Competition Authority forbids the application of most favoured nation clause and orders its removal from the contracts between hotels and booking portals (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Online hotel portal HRS’s ’best price’ clause violates competition law – Proceedings also initiated against other hotel portals* Bonn, 20 December 2013: Today the Bundeskartellamt prohibited HRS from continuing to apply its ’best price’ clause (most favoured nation clause) and ordered the company to (...)

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission proposes to authorise collective bargaining arrangements advanced by a number of specific suppliers of wagering services, energy services and insurance (Clubs Australia)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC proposes to authorise Clubs Australia’s collective bargaining arrangements* The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission proposes to authorise collective bargaining arrangements put forward by Clubs Australia for five years. Clubs Australia, representing 6,500 licensed clubs across (...)

The Australian Federal Court finds that a travel agent attempted to induce certain airlines to make collusive arrangements with it in relation to retail air fares for international air travel (Flight Centre)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
Federal Court finds that Flight Centre attempted to enter into illegal arrangements with airlines* The Federal Court has held that on 6 occasions Flight Centre attempted to enter into arrangements with airlines which sought to eliminate differences in air fares so as to fix, control or (...)

The Italian Competition Authority opens an Article 101 TFEU investigation against a purchase supercenter of several large supermarket chains (Centrale Italiana)
Desogus Law Office (Cagliari)
Introduction By a decision made on 4th December 2013 in the Centrale di Acquisto per la grande distribuzione autorizzata (Purchase Supercenter) case the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) has opened an Article 101 TFEU enquiry into the agreement concluded by several supermarket chains for the (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California denies the motions to dismiss the plaintiff’s amended complaint against the "anti-troll" group organizing a boycott of android related patents (Cascades Computer Innovation / RPX)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
“Anti-Patent Troll” Fails to Secure Dismissal of Amended Antitrust Complaint* Back in January, I covered the case of Cascades Computer Innovation LLC v. RPX Corp., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10526 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 24, 2013), where Judge Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers dismissed – with leave to amend – Cascades’ (...)

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Chairman welcomes the review of Australian competition law in order to better regulate supermarket issues and enhance consumer welfare
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC Chairman addresses supermarket debate* Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Chairman Rod Sims today provided a regulator’s perspective on the debate surrounding the market share held by the two major supermarket chains. Mr Sims spoke at the Australian Food and Grocery Council’s (...)

The Danish Competition Council accepts commitments from a purchasing association for pharmacists in relation to decision to exclude a member (Uldum Apotek / A-apoteket)
Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (Copenhagen)
Competition Council accepts commitments from Denmark’s largest purchasing association for pharmacists* On 26 June 2013 the Danish Competition Council accepted commitments from A-apoteket – a purchasing association for pharmacists – on the basis of concerns that a decision taken by the association (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California dismisses with leave to amend antitrust claims against high-tech producers employing the android operating system (Cascades Computer Innovation / RPX)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
Can An “Anti-Patent Troll” Be a Monopsonist or a Section 1 Conspirator?* A recent interesting case suggests that “anti-patent trolls” may in theory face antitrust liability. In Cascades Computer Innovation LLC v. RPX Corp., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10526 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 24, 2013), Judge Yvonne (...)

The Moscow Arbitration Court upholds FAS Russia ruling on cartel during online open tenders (Eske, Borodina, Sirius, Blitz)
Simmons & Simmons (London)
Background & Proceedings On the 11/08/2011 theFederal Antimonopoly Service of Russian Federation began investigation of the alleged breach of the Federal Law 26.07.2006 № 135-ФЗ "On Protection of Competition" by private entrepreneur Eske, (Еске Н.Ю.), private entrepreneur Borodina (Бородинa М.А.), (...)

The Bulgarian Competition Authority settles an alleged cartel case (Metro, Billa, Kaufland, Picadilly, Maxima, HIT)
Djingov, Gouginski, Kyutchukov & Velichkov (Sofia)
On 19 July 2012 the Bulgarian Commission on Protection of Competition (“CPC”) handed down a commitments decision (the “Commitments Decision”) and closed an investigation for alleged horizontal coordination of pricing and marketing policy by six retailers – “Metro Cash & Carry Bulgaria” EOOD (...)

The US DoJ announces to continue investigations into the e-book industry for alleged price-fixing conspiracy (Apple)
Sidley Austin (Brussels)
The DOJ believes that Apple is forcing you to pay more for e-books* On April 11, 2012 the world of antitrust became abuzz with the news that the DOJ filed a lawsuit against Apple for its alleged participation in an e-books pricing scheme with the leading publishers: Hachette Book Group (USA), (...)

The Bulgarian Competition Authority adopts an opinion on draft amendments to the law on electronic communications
European Commission (Brussels)
Bulgaria: The Commission for the Protection of Competition (CPC) welcomes pro-competitive Amendments to Telecommunications Legislation* On 12 May 2011, the Commission on Protection of Competition (CPC) adopted an opinion on draft amendments to the Law on Electronic Communications (LEC). Some (...)

The EU Commission publishes Guidelines establishing conditions under which standardization agreements would normally fall outside the scope of Article 101(1) TFEU
Sidley Austin (Brussels)
Product Certification – The Next Big Standard-Setting Debate?* Introduction The smart phone wars have led to heated discussions over standard setting in technology markets. It seems only a question of time before the standard setting debate spills over into other areas. My personal candidate (...)

The EU Commission issues new guidelines on horizontal co-operation agreements focusing on information exchanges under Art. 101 TFEU
Liege Competition and Innovation Institute
Information Exchange and Cartels – Dangerous Liaisons?* Are information exchanges really = cartels under EU competition law? The issue has triggered many discussions on the blog lately. I just thought I’d post my own ruminations on this. The Guidelines do not really say that information (...)

The EU Commission publishes new guidelines on the applicability of article 101 TFEU to horizontal co-operation agreements
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
This article has been selected for the business category, anti-competitive practices section of the 2012 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On January 14, 2011, the European Commission (the “Commission”) published new Guidelines on the (...)

The EU Commission issues new guidelines on the applicability of Art. 101 TFEU to horizontal co-operation agreements equating information exchanges between competitors with cartels
Garrigues (Brussels)
Information exchange=cartel?* Many have praised the inclusion of some guidance on exchanges of information within the new EU Guidelines on horizontal agreements. Personally, I agree with those arguing that guidance from the Commission was necessary, and I acknowledge that there are some useful (...)

The Danish Competition Council grants an individual exemption for a horizontal cooperation between 27 small and medium-sized car insurance companies (Taksatorringens vedtægter)
Kromann Reumert (Copenhagen)
The Danish Competition Council exempted horizontal cooperation between 27 small and medium-sized motor vehicle insurance companies for the third time in a row. The cooperation consisted of a jointly established association of insurance appraisers (taksatorringen) that: (1) assess motor vehicle (...)

The Italian Competition Authority sanctions a cartel of 26 pasta producers and professional associations on the basis of Art. 81.1 EC (Listino prezzi della pasta)
University of Palermo
On 25 February 2009 the Authority ascertained two price-fixing cartels in the Italian market of durum semolina pasta and fined 26 pasta producers (Amato, Barilla, Colussi, De Cecco, Divella, Garofalo, Nestlé, Rummo, Zara, Berruto, Delverde, Granoro, Riscossa, Tandoi, Cellino, Chirico, De (...)

The Italian competition authority fines 26 pasta makers and two industry associations for coordinating selling prices of pasta to retailers (Listino prezzi della pasta)
Desogus Law Office (Cagliari)
In the Pricing of Pasta case, by a decision likely to spark much controversy, the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) has condemned for price-fixing practices 26 pasta makers, accounting for almost 90% of the market. The ICA also fined two industry associations, Unipi (the Italian Pasta (...)

The Italian Competition Authority inflicts a fines over € 12 M upon the main 26 producers of pasta and two associations of undertakings, for allegedly exchanging information and adopting other initiatives to increase prices (Listino prezzi della pasta)
Ashurst (Brussels)
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Legance - Studio Legale Associato (Rome)
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Legance - Studio Legale Associato (Rome)
Background On 26 February 2009, the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) fined 26 pasta producers active in Italy (representing approximately 90% of the overall relevant market) and two associations of undertakings claiming that they had entered into an agreement aimed at increasing the prices (...)

The Italian Competition Authority inflicts a fine on pasta manufacturers and related industry associations for having entered into an illicit pricing cartel in breach of Art. 81 of the EC Treaty (Listino prezzi della pasta)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
By its Decision delivered on 25 February 2009, the Italian Competition Authority (the “ICA”) closed the investigation that had been initiated at the end of 2007 against 29 pasta manufacturers and two Italian industry associations, i.e. UNIPI - Unione Industriale Pastai Italiani (The Italian Pasta (...)

The UK Competition Authority holds that exclusive agreements for the provision of television access services are nor in breach of Art. 81 EC (Independent Media Support - BBC Broadcast - Channel 4)
KPMG (Kent)
Summary Ofcom has decided that the exclusive agreements signed by BBC Broadcast Limited to provide Channel 4 Television Corporation (Channel 4) with television access services have not infringed section 2 of the Competition Act 1998 or Article 81(1) of the EC Treaty. Under United Kingdom (...)

The European Commission fines companies for colluding on raw tobacco prices in Spain (Compañía española de tabaco en rama, Agroexpansion, World Wide Tobacco España, Tabacos españoles, Deltafina)
EU Delegation to the Republic of South Africa (Pretoria)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Commission fines companies for colluding on raw tobacco prices in Spain"* On 20th October 2004, the European Commission adopted a prohibition decision imposing a total fine of € 20 million to five companies active in the raw tobacco processing market for colluding on the prices paid to and the (...)

The French Competition Authority issues an opinion on the state of competition in the non-specialist large-scale retail sector (UFC Que Choisir)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
Rise in "back margins" paid to large-scale retailers, inflation and competition: In an opinion handed down to the consumers association UFC-Que Choisir on 18th October 2004, the Conseil de la concurrence emphasizes the effects of such a rise on increases in consumer products and the risks of (...)

The German Competition Authority examines in formal proceedings whether a contract system for acquiring waste services is compatible with competition law (Der Grüne Punkt Duales System)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt examines whether DSD is compatible with competition law* The Bundeskartellamt will examine in formal proceedings whether the contract system of “Der Grüne Punkt – Duales System Deutschland AG” (DSD, “The Green Dot”) is compatible with the Act Against Restraints of Competition (ARC). (...)

Unilateral Practices

The German Federal Court of Justice issues a landmark decision addressing the issue of “Wedding Rebates” demanded by undertakings with relative market power (EDEKA)
University of Kiel
The German Federal Court of Justice (BGH) had to assess the outcome of price negotiations between a powerful German food retailer (Edeka) and some of its suppliers. Edeka had just taken over a no-frills competitor (“Plus”) with more than 2000 outlets and was in the process of rebranding these (...)

The German Supreme Court issues landmark ruling on unfair trading practices (EDEKA)
Jones Day (Frankfurt)
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Jones Day (Brussels)
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Jones Day (Frankfurt)
The Situation: Market-dominant and powerful companies in Germany are subject to a number of rules that are significantly broader and stricter than the European Union’s, Article 102 AEUV, which prohibits the abuse of a dominant position. The Development: A recent decision by the German Supreme (...)

The Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court finds that “wedding-rebates” requested by a food retailer from its suppliers are not abusive (EDEKA)
Commeo (Frankfurt)
In its judgement of 18 November 2015, the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court (“the Court”) quashed a decision of the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) which stated that German food retailer EDEKA abused its dominant position by requesting preferential purchase conditions and bonus payments from sparkling (...)

The German Competition Authority decides that the wedding rebates constituted benefits without any objective justification resulting in abuse of dominance on the food retail market (EDEKA)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt takes decision of principle in food retail case - EDEKA’s demands on suppliers were abusive The Bundeskartellamt has issued a decision stating that the demands made by EDEKA Zentrale AG & Co.KG on suppliers after its takeover of the Plus stores in 2009 ("wedding rebates") (...)

The Canadian Competition Bureau supports the Government’s intention to address unjustified cross-border price discrimination to reduce the gap between consumer prices in Canada and the United States
Steve Szentesi Law Corporation (Vancouver)
New CD Howe Report on Canada/US Price Gap: Tariff and Supply Management Issues (Not Retailer Market Power)* Earlier on 6 May 2014, the C.D. Howe Institute issued a new report on the Canada/U.S. retail price gap issue entitled Sticker Shock: The Causes of the Canada-US Price Differential (...)

The Australian Competition and Consumer Authority institutes proceedings in the Federal Court of Australia against supermarket chain for exploitative conduct (Coles Supermarkets)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC takes action against Coles for alleged unconscionable conduct towards its suppliers* The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has instituted proceedings in the Federal Court of Australia against Coles Supermarkets Australia Pty Ltd and Grocery Holdings Pty Ltd (together, (...)

The Lithuanian Competition Council imposes fines for abusive practices in the food and drinks retail sector concerning return of goods (MAXIMA)
Lithuanian Competition Authority (Vilnius)
Competition council imposes a fine of 40 000 LTL on Maxima LT, UAB* On January 22, having established that the provisions set forth in MAXIMA LT, UAB (MAXIMA) supply agreements fail to comply with the requirements of the Law on the Prohibition of Unfair Practices of Retailers of the Republic (...)

The Czech Office for the Protection of Competition imposes fines for abuse of significant market power on the retail market for agricultural and food products (Kaufland)
Braun Partners (Prague)
Food Retailers in the Czech Republic, Be Aware!* The so-called Act on Significant Market Power for the Sale of Agricultural and Food Products and the Abuse thereof (No. 359/2009 Coll.) had effect from 1 February 2010. In October 2013, internal appeal procedures ended with the first significant (...)

The German Competition Authority issues a statement of objections against a dominant retailer for abusive practices against economically dependent suppliers on the market for sales of sparkling wine (EDEKA)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Statement of objections issued against EDEKA for use of "wedding rebates" after Plus takeover - Bundeskartellamt considers demands on suppliers as abusive* Bonn, 26 July 2013: According to the Bundeskartellamt’s preliminary assessment, EDEKA Zentrale AG & Co.KG, Hamburg, has violated the (...)

The Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority investigates the phenomena related to the use of buying power with questionnaires directed retailers and the food industry
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (Helsinki)
An abridged English version of the Finnish Competition Authority’s study on the Trade in Groceries is now available* According to the FCA study on buying power in the trade in groceries, retailers use their firm position with respect to suppliers in several ways that may be considered (...)

The Latvian Competition Council imposes fines on a dominant undertaking for enforcing unfair trading conditions on a dependant wholesaler in the consumer goods and retail sector (Drogas)
Konkurences padome (Riga)
The Competition Council Fines Retail Chain for Abuse of its Market Power* On 14 December 2012, the Competition Council adopted a decision to fine AS Drogas which is the largest retail chain in the sector of health, beauty and household goods retail in Latvia. It was established that AS Drogas (...)

The Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority concludes that contract practices and regulation put at disadvantage primary producers within the food supply chain
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (Helsinki)
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority study: contract practices and regulation put primary producers in a difficult position in the food supply chain The position of primary producers in the food supply chain is made more difficult both by tight regulation and groceries trade and food (...)

The Supreme Court of Norway renders its first judgment interpreting Section 11 of the Norwegian Competition Act which forbids the abuse of a dominant position (Tine)
BA-HR (Oslo)
On 22 June 2011, the Norwegian Supreme Court rendered its first ever judgment interpreting Section 11 of the Norwegian Competition Act which forbids the abuse of a dominant position, a provision akin to Article 102 TFEU. The judgement ultimately vindicates dairy producer Tine AS («Tine«) for (...)

The Serbian Competition Authority fines two leading dairy food companies for abusing their dominant position on the raw milk market (Mlekara / Imlek)
Faculty of Law - University of Macau
On 24 January 2011 the Serbian Competition Authority (KZK) fined the two leading dairy food companies Mlekara and Imlek (both controlled by Danube Foods Group BV) for the abuse of joint dominant position on the market for purchasing the raw milk from the dairy farms. For each of the two (...)

The Romanian Competition Authority finds no abuse of dominance in a situation of monopsony on the steel products market (Cost / Sterom)
Faculty of Law - University of Macau
On 22 December 2010 the Romanian Competition Authority (CC) completed its investigation into the possible abuse of dominance on the market for the cold drawn alloy steel bars manufactured by SC COST SA (COST). The CC’s investigation was prompted by a complained lodged by SC PCC STEROM SA (...)

The Latvian Competition Council fines retail chain for imposing unfair discounts on a milk processing company (Supernetto)
Konkurences padome (Riga)
The Competition Council Fines Retail Chain for Imposition of Unfair Discounts on Milk Processing Company* On 30 November 2010 the Competition Council (CC) adopted a decision to fine one of the largest retail chains in Latvia RIMI Latvia Ltd. for abuse of dominant position in retail trade. It (...)

The Latvian Parliament amends the Competition Act changing the merger notification procedure and redefining the concept of dominant position in the retail sector
Konkurences padome (Riga)
Amendments to the Competition Law* On 1 September 2009 entered into force Amendments to the Competition Law of the Republic of Latvia. Most substantial issue of the Amendments refer to the merger control. As from September 1 merger notifications have to be submitted not only by those market (...)

The Czech Chamber of Deputies votes a bill on abuse of economic dependence (Bill on significant market power and the abuse thereof)
Czech Ministry of Justice (Prague)
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Czech Ministry of Justice (Prague)
On 15 May 2009, the Czech Chamber of Deputies voted in favour of a bill “on significant market power and the abuse thereof”. According to the voted text, “where, due to the situation on the market, a supplier becomes dependent on the buyer with respect to the possibility to deliver its goods to (...)

The European Commission publishes its guidance paper on exclusionary abuses under Article 82 EC
White & Case (Brussels)
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White & Case (Brussels)
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White & Case (Brussels)
I. BACKGROUND The European Commission published the 24th February 2009 a Communication containing its long-awaited Guidance Paper on exclusionary abuses under Article 82 C(Commission Communication – Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article 82 EC Treaty to Abusive (...)

The Austrian competition authority concludes general inquiry in the highly concentrated food distribution sector while highlighting indications of strong buyer power (Branchenuntersuchung Lebensmittelhandel)
European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)
In June 2007, the Austrian competition authority (Bundeswettbewerbsbehörde; “BWB”) published its final report on a general inquiry conducted in respect of the Austrian food wholesale and retail distribution sector with special regard to the phenomenon of buying power (“Nachfragemacht”) exerted by (...)

The EU Court of Justice upholds the fine imposed on an airline for abuse of market dominance (British Airways)
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (Brussels)
In 1999 the Commission fined British Airways (BA) €6,800,000 for abuse of its dominant position on the market for air travel agency services, contrary to article 82 of the EC Treaty. The abuse consisted of a system of rebates granted to travel agents that was held to be both loyalty inducing and (...)

The US Supreme Court recognizes a limited claim for predatory bidding (Weyerhaeuser)
Penn State Law (University Park)
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University of Florida - Levin College of Law (Gainesville)
Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Ross-Simmons Hardwood Lumber Co.: The U.S. Supreme Court Recognizes a Limited Claim for Predatory Bidding* Monopsony is the negative image of monopoly. Narrowly defined, it is the structural condition in which a well-specified good or service has only one buyer. But just (...)

The EU Commission renders legally binding commitments offered by the largest rough diamonds producer to phase out diamond purchases from the most important competitor (De Beers)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"De Beers: commitments to phase out diamond purchases from the most important competitor"* 1. Overview On 22 February 2006 the Commission adopted a decision pursuant to Article 9 of Regulation 1/2003 (hereafter: ‘Reg. 1/2003’) which rendered binding the commitments offered by De Beers in order (...)

The UK Competition Appeal Tribunal finds a pharmaceutical company guilty of margin squeeze but rejects the OFT’s evidence on bundling (Genzyme)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Genzyme Limited ("Genzyme") is a pharmaceutical company which produces Cerezyme - the main drug for the treatment of Gaucher disease. The drug is taken by approximately 190 patients in the United Kingdom and is usually administered at home with the assistance of trained medical staff. Between (...)

The German Competition Authority lodges an appeal on points of law at the Federal Supreme Court against the decision of the Higher Regional Court Düsseldorf in proceedings on abuse of dominance in the retail sector (WalMart)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt files appeal on points of law in the WalMart case (sales below cost price)* The Bundeskartellamt has lodged an appeal on points of law at the Federal Supreme Court against the decision of the Higher Regional Court Düsseldorf in the WalMart abuse proceedings. On 1 September (...)

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