French Administrative Courts repeatedly rules that Art. 87.1 EC does not have direct effect and tacitly considered that they do not have to raise by their own motion a potential breach of Art. 88.3 EC (14 cases)

1. Introduction The present note is a comment on not less than fourteen Courts decisions in which the French administrative Courts repeatedly ruled that parties cannot, on the basis of former article 92 EC (now article 87 EC) alone, challenge the compatibility of an aid with the common market before national Courts (See also Conseil d'État, 17 April 1992, La vache à lait qui refuse de se laisser traire ; Loïc Grard, The French State Council rejected the direct effect of Art. 87 EC and excluded “automatic” notification to the EC Commission of situations likely to be regarded as State aid (“La vache à lait qui refuse de se laisser traire”) , e-Competitions, State Aids-II). Most of these decisions deal with claims about tax exemption or tax reimbursement; however, the facts and backgrounds of

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Jean-Yves Chérot, French Administrative Courts repeatedly rules that Art. 87.1 EC does not have direct effect and tacitly considered that they do not have to raise by their own motion a potential breach of Art. 88.3 EC (14 cases), 10 February 1967, e-Competitions Bulletin Direct effect, Art. N° 14025

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