October 2015

Anticompetitive practices

The Zambian Competition Authority conducts dawn raids as part of an investigation into the alleged fixing of maize and flour prices (Millers Association)
Primerio
Zambia: Competition Authority conducts dawn raids in the maize milling industry* ZNBC reported on 30 October 2015 that the Zambian Competition and Consumer Protection Commission (CCPC) conducted dawn raids on three milling companies, namely National Milling Corporation, Superior Milling (...)

The Russian Competition Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority sign a new cooperation program for 2016-2017
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service
The competition authority of Russia and Finland signed a new Cooperation Programme for 2016-2017* On 28 October 2015, a new Cooperation program was signed between the Federal Antimonopoly Service and Finland’s Competition and Consumer Authority in Paris. The Programme was signed in the course (...)

The Russian Competition Authority concludes an investigation regarding a cartel in the market of public and municipal construction (NASI)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service
Leningrad OFAS exposed a violation on the regional market of developing and selling costing programs, and design specifications and estimates* The Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS Russia) continues the efforts to expose violations of the antimonopoly law in public and municipal construction. (...)

The EU Court of Justice dismisses the appeal against a judgment of the General Court upholding cartel facilitator liability (AC-Treuhand)
Garrigues (Brussels)
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Garrigues (Brussels)
You may remember that earlier this year we commented on AG Wahl’s Opinion in AC-Treuhand (C-194/14 P) and anticipated that, in spite of its thought provoking reasoning, it was likely not to be followed by the Court. Well, the ECJ’s Judgment was released on Thursday, and, as expected, the General (...)

The EU Court of Justice confirms that consulting firms may be held liable and fined for cartel facilitation (AC‑Treuhand)
Wiggin (London)
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Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (Brussels)
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Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (Brussels)
The Court of Justice has confirmed that consultancy firms may be held liable and fined for cartel infringements where they contribute to the implementation and continuation of cartels even if they are not active on the affected market(s). Background In 2009, the Commission fined a number of (...)

The EU Court of Justice dismisses the appeal against a judgment of the General Court upholding cartel facilitator liability (AC-Treuhand)
Altius (Brussels)
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Liège University - IEJE
I. The Parties AC Treuhand AG, the applicant, is a consultancy firm which is based in Zurich (Switzerland) and provides a range of international focused services, like business management and administration, assessment of market data, presentation of market statistics, etc. The European (...)

The EU Court of Justice holds that the liability of a cartel facilitator was foreseeable (AC-Treuhand)
University of Groningen
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University of Groningen
The shortest competition judgment ever: AC-Treuhand II* Competition law judgments are notorious for their length. An extreme example is the 5134 paragraph judgment in Cement. In most cases the appeal judgment is significantly shorter, as with the 391 paragraphs in the appeal in Cement. (...)

The EU Court of Justice upholds cartel facilitator liability (AC-Treuhand)
Simmons & Simmons (London)
In brief AC-Treuhand has failed in its attempt to have two fines overturned for facilitating the heat stabilisers cartel. The case confirms that servicing a cartel by organising and participating in meetings, collecting and supplying to producers data on relevant markets and offering to (...)

The EU Court of Justice upholds cartel facilitator liability (AC-Treuhand)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
Introduction On October 22, 2015, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) published a landmark decision upholding the Commission’s imposition of fines on a consultancy, AC-Treuhand AG (AC-Treuhand), for participation in two cartels between 1993 and 2000. AC-Treuhand argued that, as a (...)

The EU Court of Justice upholds a cartel decision of the Commission on heat stabilisers market (AC-Treuhand)
European Commission - DG COMP
Antitrust: Commission welcomes Court judgment confirming cartel facilitator’s liability* The European Commission welcomes today’s ruling by the EU Court of Justice upholding an earlier General Court judgment and thereby a Commission decision of 2009 to hold AC Treuhand liable under EU antitrust (...)

The German Competition Authority fines for the second time a matress producer for resale price maintenance (Tempur)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt concludes mattress case with another fine* The Bundeskartellamt has fined Tempur Deutschland GmbH, Steinhagen, 15.5 million euros for imposing resale price maintenance on retailers selling its products. Andreas Mundt, President of the Bundeskartellamt: "From August 2005 to (...)

The English Court of Appeal strikes out two cartel damages claims based on the torts of conspiracy and economic interference thus narrowing the scope of other potential claims (Air Cargo)
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
In brief There were three significant developments in the air cargo cartel damages litigation in the UK in October 2015. First, on 14 October 2015, the English Court of Appeal significantly narrowed the scope of potential claims in the UK by striking out two claims based on the torts of (...)

The England & Wales Court of Appeal refuses to expand the qualification of victim down the chain to the ultimate consumer (Air Canada / Emerald Supplies)
Blackstone Chambers
Blown out of the water? Air Cargo and the future of extra-EU/EEA cartel damages claims* If the captain of a trading ship fires cannon on a canoe to prevent the canoeists trading with another boat vying for their trade, that boat’s owners can sue the captain: Tarleton v M’Gawley (1793) Peake 270. (...)

The Turkish Council of State annuls the decision of the Turkish Competition Authority which dismissed the complaint at the preliminary inquiry stage without evaluating the information that showed the collusion (Pegas / Anex / Tez / Odeon Tours)
Queen Mary University (London)
This case comment analyses the judgment of the Turkish Council of State in which it has annulled the decision of the Turkish Competition Authority that rejects the complaint of a rival at the stage of preliminary inquiry without assessing the evidence demonstrating the collusion between four (...)

The Competition Commission of India passes an order on assessment of vertical restraints under the Competition Act but leaves several questions unanswered (Shri Ghanshyam Das Vij / Bajaj)
Luthra & Luthra Law Offices (New Delhi)
The Competition Commission of India (CCI) on 12 October 2015 passed an order on assessment of vertical restraints under the Competition Act, 2002 (Act) — leaving many questions unanswered. Factual background A distributor of various ayurvedic and general health products of various companies (...)

The Japanese Competition Authority issues a cease and desist order and a surcharge payment order against tenderers for bid-rigging (Japan Railway Construction)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
The JFTC Issued Cease and Desist Orders and Surcharge Payment Orders to the Participants in Bidding for Snow-Melting Equipment Works for Hokuriku Shinkansen Ordered by the Japan Railway Construction, Transportation and Technology Agency* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) today issued the (...)

The Austrian Supreme Court of Justice increases the fine against a food retailer after upholding an earlier finding of illegal pricing agreements relating to dairy products (Spar)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 8 October 2015, the Austrian Supreme Court of Justice (the “Supreme Court”) increased the fine against Spar, a food retailer, from € 3 million to € 30 million after upholding an earlier finding of illegal pricing agreements relating to dairy products. On 26 November 2014, the Higher Regional (...)

The Italian Competition Authority opens an investigation into the tender procedures for oxygen-therapy and ventilo-therapy services at home (Gare ossigenoterapia e ventilopterapia)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
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Bonelli Erede (Rome)
With a decision of 7 October 2015, following the complaints lodged by one of the local health units in the city of Milan (“ASL Milan”) and the purchasing consortium of the Campania Region (“Soresa”), the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) opened an investigation into 14 companies (“Parties”) (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on issues concerning retroactive rebates and the procedures through which these rebates can be characterized as abusive (Post Danmark II)
Herbert Smith Freehills (Madrid)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Paris)
Introduction On 6 October 2015, the European Court of Justice (the Court) issued its preliminary ruling in Post Danmark A/S v Konkurrencerådet (Competition Council), which concerns the antitrust treatment of a retroactive rebate scheme in the market for the distribution of bulk mail. The case (...)

The EU Commission opens formal investigation into eligibility rules of a professional sport association (International Skating Union)
European Commission - DG COMP
Antitrust: Commission opens formal investigation into International Skating Union’s eligibility rules* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation into International Skating Union (ISU) rules that permanently ban skaters from competitions such as the Winter Olympics and (...)

Unilateral Practices

The Chinese National Development and Reform Commission and the Chongqing AIC take separate actions to punish cartel conduct and refusal to supply in the pharmaceutical industry (Allopurinol)
University of Melbourne
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China Competition Bulletin (Beijing)
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Hogan Lovells (Beijing)
Both the NDRC and the Chongqing Administration for Industry and Commerce (Chongqing AIC) have recently taken enforcement action to address anticompetitive conduct involving allopurinol. Allopurinol tablets are a common treatment for gout (known as hyperuricemia), widely used in clinical (...)

The Moscow Arbitration Court confirms that a pharmaceutical company has abused of its dominance by stopping to supply insulin (Novo Nordisk)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service
Cassation Court confirmed: “Novo Nordisk” violated the antimonopoly law* On 21 October 2015, the Arbitration Court of the Moscow District upheld the ruling of the 9th Arbitration Appeal Court of 29 June 2015 and dismissed a cassation appeal of “Novo Nordisk” against the decision of the Federal (...)

The German Competition Authority agrees to a settlement with a municipal utility, which has charged excessive water prices to its customers (Wuppertal municipal utility)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Excessive water prices - Wuppertal municipal utility has to refund 15 million euros to customers* On account of the excessive water prices charged by the Wuppertal municipal utility, the Bundeskartellamt has agreed a settlement with WSW Energie und Wasser AG, by which the latter will refund 15 (...)

The Moscow Arbitration Court confirms that an electricity provider has abused its dominance on the market of electric power transmission (MRSK Siberia)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service
Arbitration Court supported Kemerovo OFAS in a dispute with “MRSK Siberia”* Arbitration Court of the Kemerovo Region pronounced legitimacy and determination of the Office of the Federal Antimonopoly Service in the Kemerovo Region (Kemerovo OFAS) with regard to “MRSK Siberia” OJSC. The company (...)

The Croatian Competition Authority accepts the remedies proposed by a dominant undertaking on the market of pyrotechnic products (Mirnovec pirotehnika)
Croatian Competition Agency
CCA orders Mirnovec pirotehnika to change lease and business cooperation agreements* Similar as in the recent proceeding that it carried out against the undertaking Orion in the same relevant market the Croatian Competition Agency (CCA) opened the ex officio proceeding following the initiative (...)

The Croatian High Administrative Court rules on the lack of capacity for the National Bank to file a claim against a decision of the Competition Authority (HNB)
Croatian Competition Agency
High Administrative Court dismisses the claim filed by the Croatian National Bank against the CCA decision* The High Administrative Court of the Republic of Croatia dismissed the claim filed by the Croatian National Bank (HNB) against the decision of the Croatian Competition Agency (CCA) on (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on issues concerning retroactive rebates and the procedures through which these rebates can be characterized as abusive (Post Danmark II)
Altius (Brussels)
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Linklaters (Brussels)
I. The Parties Post Danmark S/A is a Danish undertaking that provides postal services in Denmark. The undertaking provides postal services and applies uniform tariffs throughout Danish national territory. At the time of the main proceedings, in 2007 and 2008, Post Danmark was controlled by the (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on whether a retroactive loyalty rebates scheme is liable to have an exclusionary effect (Post Danmark II)
Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (Brussels)
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Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (Brussels)
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Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (Brussels)
The EU Court of Justice has handed down its much-awaited preliminary ruling in Post Danmark II . This ruling marks an ‘evolution’ rather than a ‘revolution’ in the assessment of rebates under Article 102 TFEU. While regrettably unclear in certain passages, some aspects of the Court of Justice’s (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on retroactive loyalty rebates (Post Danmark II)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
On October 6, 2015, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) issued an important judgment clarifying the application of Article 102 to retroactive loyalty rebates (Post Danmark AS, Case C 23/14). The case, which had been referred to the ECJ by the Danish Commercial Court, concerned rebates for (...)

The EU Court of Justice confirms “safe harbour” for volume rebates but creates new challenges (Post Danmark II)
Gibson Dunn (Brussels)
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Gibson Dunn (Brussels)
Rethinking Rebates Policy Under EU Competition Law* On 6 October 2015, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled in a case concerning rebates and when they fall foul of EU competition law. Background The case concerns Post Danmark and, unlike appeals against European Commission Decisions, (...)

The U.S. Department of Justice recommends a significantly reduced fine for an auto parts manufacturer accused of bid-rigging and price-fixing (Kayaba Industry)
Jones Day (Houston)
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Jones Day (Washington)
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Jones Day (Chicago)
The U.S. Department of Justice has recommended a significantly reduced fine for an auto parts defendant accused of bid-rigging and price-fixing, based largely on the defendant’s having quickly instituted a rigorous antitrust compliance program – even though only after the government initiated its (...)

Mergers

The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation concerning a merger in the mobile telecommunications market (Hutchison / Telefónica UK)
European Commission - DG COMP
Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into Hutchison’s proposed acquisition of Telefónica UK* The European Commission will investigate in-depth Hutchison’s takeover of Telefónica UK. The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation under the EU Merger Regulation to assess (...)

The UK Competition Authority provisionally clears a merger in the retail mobile market (BT / EE)
UK Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) (London)
CMA provisionally clears BT/EE merger* The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has provisionally cleared BT’s anticipated acquisition of EE. BT Group plc (BT) and EE Limited (EE) are large telecommunications companies in the UK. They operate largely in separate areas with BT strong in (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger between major online dating platforms in phase II (EliteMedianet / Parship)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Major online dating platforms can merge* The Bundeskartellamt has cleared in second phase proceedings the planned acquisition of all the shares in EliteMedianet GmbH, Hamburg, by an investment fund of Oakley Capital Limited, London. The merger affects the market for online dating platforms, on (...)

The Irish Competition and Consumer Protection Commission approves a merger following the parties’ submission of a failing division argument (Baxter Healthcare / Fannin Compounding)
European Investment Bank
Introduction The Irish Competition and Consumer Protection Commission (CCPC) has approved a merger under the Irish Competition Act 2002 (as amended) following the parties’ submission of a failing division argument. The transaction saw Baxter Healthcare Limited (Baxter) seeking to acquire sole (...)

The French Competition Authority clears a merger in the newspapers market (LVMH / Le Parisien / Aujourd’hui en France)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence clears the acquisition of Le Parisien and Aujourd’hui en France by the LVMH Group* The Autorité de la concurrence has reviewed the acquisition of sole control of the publishing and marketing activities of Le Parisien and its nationwide version Aujourd’hui en France (...)

The French Competition Authority clears an acquisition in the overseas’s mobile telecom market (Iliad / Hiridjee)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence clears the acquisition of joint control of Outremer Telecom’s mobile activities by Iliad alongside Hiridjee* The Autorité de la concurrence has reviewed the acquisition by Iliad of 50% of the capital of the company Telecom Reunion Mayotte, which will henceforth be (...)

The Japanese Competition Authority opens an in-depth review concerning a merger in the market of containerboard (Nippon Paper Industries / Tokushu Tokai Paper)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
The JFTC Opens Secondary Review Concerning the Proposed Transactions including Establishment of a Joint Selling Company for Containerboards etc by Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. and Tokushu Tokai Paper Co., Ltd.and Solicits Comments from Third Parties* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) (...)

The UK Competition Authority removes several structural merger undertakings given before 1 January 2005 concerning eleven cases
UK Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) (London)
CMA presses on with remedies removal* The CMA is continuing its drive to ensure that its remedies do not stay in place longer than needed. As part of a series of such reviews, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has looked at remedies resulting from 13 merger investigations and (...)

The French Competition Authority opens ex officio proceedings to review whether a internet provider has respected its merger remedies (SFR / Bouygues Telecom)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
SFR/Bouygues Telecom agreement to deploy fibre in very densely populated areas* Following a complaint made by Bouygues Telecom, the Autorité de la concurrence has opened ex officio proceedings to review the conditions under which Numericable complies with its commitments made in relation to the (...)

The Romanian Competition Authority clears a merger in the pharmacies sector (Centrofarm / Help Net Farma)
Romanian Competition Council (Bucharest)
The Competition Council has authorized the takeover of 19 pharmacies Centrofarm by Help Net* The Competition Council has authorized the take over of 19 pharmacies Centrofarm by Help Net Farma SA. By this transaction, Help Net take over the 19 pharmacies Centrofarm from 10 localities: (...)

The Mexican Competition Authority clears a merger subject to remedies in the supermarkets retail sector (Soriana / Comercial Mexicana)
Mexican Competition Authority (Mexico city)
COFECE conditions concentration1 between Soriana and Comercial Mexicana* Mexico City, October 8th 2015. - The Mexican Federal Competition Commission (COFECE) decided to challenge the concentration between Organización Soriana (Soriana) and Controladora Comercial Mexicana (CCM) in the terms in (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority clears a merger on the air transport market (TAP)
Portuguese Competition Authority (Lisbon)
AdC clears the acquisition of TAP* The Portuguese Competition Authority (PCA) adopted a clearance decision on the merger concerning the acquisition of joint control of the air transport undertaking TAP – Transportes Aéreos Portugueses, SGPS, S.A. by HPGB, SGPS, S.A. and DGN Corporation, through (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger on the market of high definition digital maps for cars (BMW, Daimler & Audi / HERE)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
BMW, Daimler and Audi can aquire Nokia’s HERE mapping service* In the first phase of merger control the Bundeskartellamt has cleared the acquisition of the HERE mapping service, which until now has belonged to the Finnish Nokia Corporation, by a consortium of the German car manufacturers BMW, (...)

The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation regarding a takeover in the mobile phone retail market (Liberty Global / BASE)
European Commission - DG COMP
Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of BASE Belgium by Liberty Global* The European Commission will investigate in-depth the Liberty Global/BASE Belgium takeover. The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation under the EU Merger Regulation (...)

The German Competition Authority publishes a discussion paper on internet platforms in merger control, contractual restrictions of competition and abuse of dominance scenarios
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
The FCO publishes discussion paper on internet platform markets* On October 1, 2015, the FCO published a paper entitled “Digital economy – internet platforms between competition law, privacy and consumer protection” on the occasion of a conference of the working group competition law (consisting (...)

The Belgian Competition Authority fines an undertaking for impeding a market inquiry by the late provision of information (Sanoma Media)
Belgian Competition Authority (Brussels)
The Competition College of the Belgian Competition Authority has imposed a fine of 50 000 euro on Sanoma Media Belgium because they impeded an investigation by the late provision of information* The Competition College has decided that Sanoma Media Belgium N.V. (seller) impeded by negligence (...)

State Aid

The EU Commission concludes that Luxembourg and the Netherlands granted tax advantages to two companies (Fiat and Starbucks)
European Commission - DG COMP
Commission decides selective tax advantages for Fiat in Luxembourg and Starbucks in the Netherlands are illegal under EU state aid rules* The European Commission has decided that Luxembourg and the Netherlands have granted selective tax advantages to Fiat Finance and Trade and Starbucks, (...)

The EU Commission orders claw back in the first decisions to emerge in its crackdown on corporate tax avoidance (Fiat / Starbucks)
Simmons & Simmons (Brussels)
On 21 October 2015, the European Commission adopted its first two decisions on the compatibility of tax rulings with EU State aid rules. The first case related to a Dutch tax ruling granted to Starbucks. The second case involved Fiat’s finance company, based in Luxembourg. In both cases, the (...)

The EU Commission holds that an incompatible aid can be recovered from an undertaking that continues some of the activities of an insolvent undertaking that received the aid (Termoelectrica / Electrocentrale Deva)
College of Europe (Bruges)
Commission decision 2015/1877: Aid granted by Romania via Hidroelectrica to Termoelectrica and Electrocentrale Deva [OJ L275, 20 October 2015]* This is a peculiar case. All three companies are owned by the state. Hidroelectrica generates much of its electricity from hydroelectric power. (...)

The EU Commission orders the recovery of incompatible aid from the "successor" company due to economic continuity (NCHZ)
College of Europe (Bruges)
Economic Continuity and Recovery of Incompatible State Aid* Incompatible State aid must be recovered from “successor” companies which acquire previously aided companies and enable the latter to continue their operations without any change. Introduction In this article I review a decision in (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on the temporal scope of secondary instruments applied to assess the compatibility of a State aid (Jørgen Andersen)
Maastricht University
Case C-303/13 P European Commission v Jørgen Andersen* In this post I will analyse a particular aspect of State aid law: the temporal scope of secondary instruments applied to assess the aid’s compatibility. The case at hand deals in particular with Regulation (EEC) 1191/69, which originally (...)

Procedures

The Turkish Court of Appeals decides that follow-on actions for damages are subject to a limitation period of eight years starting from the claimant’s application to the Competition Authority (Yargıtay)
University of Sussex
This case note analyses the judgment of the Turkish Court of Appeals in which it has decided that private actions for damages are subject to a limitation period of eight years, which begins when the claimant applies to the Turkish Competition Authority (TCA) prior to bringing a follow-on (...)

The Pakistani Competition Authority issues an opinion regarding the regulatory duty on imported steel billets
Competition Commission of Pakistan
CCP issues policy note to federal government to rationalize regulatory duty on imported steel billets* ISLAMABAD, 8 OCTOBER 2015: The Competition Commission of Pakistan (CCP) has issued a Policy Note to the Federal Government recommending it to amend the Statutory Regulatory Order (SRO) (...)

The UK Parliament adopts the Consumer Rights Act to boost private enforcement of competition law
Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
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Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
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Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
Introduction On 1 October 2015 the Consumer Rights Act 2015 entered into force. This reforms and consolidates consumer protection laws in the UK but also - significantly from a litigation perspective - provides a mechanism for a form of “class action” to be brought for the first time in the UK. (...)

The UK Consumer Rights Act 2015 enters into force
White & Case (London)
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White & Case (Brussels)
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White & Case (London)
The entry into force of the UK Consumer Rights Act 2015 (the “CRA”) on 1 October 2015 marks the introduction of opt-out class actions in the UK, further transforming the legal landscape for private damages claims in the UK. Together with further changes as a result of the UK’s implementation of (...)

The UK Parliament adopts the Consumer Rights Act to boost private enforcement of competition law
Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
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Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
Introduction The Consumer Rights Act 2015 (the Act) will enter into force on October 1, 2015. It contains some significant reforms which aim to boost private enforcement of competition law in England and Wales and will increase the exposure of companies found to have infringed competition law (...)

The UK Parliament introduces reforms to facilitate private actions in antitrust cases
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
UK Introduces Reforms to Facilitate Private Actions in Antitrust Cases From October 1, 2015, new rules will make it easier for claimants to pursue antitrust damages claims in the UK. These reforms, introduced under the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (the “Act”), are the final piece of the Government’s (...)

The UK Parliament implements a new regime issued from the Consumer Right Act extending the powers of the Competition Appeal Tribunal
Blackstone Chambers
Private Actions: The CRA 2015 giveth; and the 2015 CAT Rules taketh away Introduction* Today, on the 1st October 2015, when we are supposed to be celebrating the brave new world of the Competition Act 1998 (“CA”) as amended by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (“CRA”), cartelists and other competition (...)

Regulatory

The French Competition Authority issues a second opinion concerning the competitive impact of the switchover to free digital terrestrial television of several pay TV channels (LCI)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
Under the new procedure initiated by the CSA, the Autorité de la concurrence has issued a second opinion concerning the competitive impact of the switchover to free DTT by the LCI, Paris Première and Planète + pay TV channels* The Autorité releases an opinion issued today to the CSA (French (...)

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